1) Family Violence or Aggression

1) Family Violence or Aggression Discussion Question Followon. Topic : Myers (2013) attests that individuals amidst the 20th century were believed to be the most intelligent and educated; but were however, the most aggressive. It is documented that roughly 182 million deaths were the result of war and genocide. Alcohol and family violence are of special attentiveness due to the physical and mental effects suffered by the victim. Usually; the victims of such violence are well known to the perpetrators; for example. the victim may be the husband, wife or child. In cases were the victim is the spouse of the perpetrator; in 75% of cases. alcohol is the primary factor. However; although alcohol consumption and aggression relate together, information explaining why the aggression occurs is still in its early stages to explain their association ( Markowitz, 2001). Across England and Wales during 2013 and 2014; statistics show 1.3 million incidents of violence were recorded and the victims of these incidents reported that the perpetrators were under the influence of alcohol in 53% of the cases. However; it has been shown amongst the statistics that the number of incidents has decreased in cases were alcohol was not related, but in cases which were alcohol related has remained consistent in the last ten years (Office of national statistics, 2015). Bandura (1973) social learning theory best explains alcohol and family violence for many reasons. The social learning theory claims that human behaviour is learned from the environment during a process called observational learning (McLeod, 2016). In accordance to the social learning theory; being born to parents who have a history of addiction, can lead to a development of addiction for the offspring which may result in violence (Horvorth et al, 2018). Mihalic and Elliott (1977) states that human beings model behaviour that we have witnessed as children; and when a youngster is growing up in a family were domestic violence and alcohol abuse is an ongoing issue, witness behaviours which they are more likely to repeat as adults. In other words; a child who witnesses domestic violence creates an intolerance, these children then adopt these behaviours as if they were normal then repeat the same controlling and violent behaviours towards their spouse. Nonetheless; even though bandura (1973) social learning theory explains a lot about complex behaviours; it does not sufficiently explain why individuals develop behaviours regarding our thoughts and feelings; human beings have cognitive control towards our behaviour and not every person who has had some experience of violence, no matter how acute or extreme it may be, will replicate the behaviours we may have witnessed as a child. Also; the social learning theory does not explain all behaviours, for example, cases where there is no role model present in a persons life which can fully explain the certain behaviours of that person ( McLeod, 2016) To conclude; violence in the family does seem to increase when alcohol has been added to the equation. Alcohol reduces a persons ability to cogitate effectivly, creates chemical changes in the brain which can result in people being in confrontational and dangerous situations and misinterpret another persons behaviour (Drink Aware, 2018). Moreover; Bandura claimed that children do learn their behaviour from adults, and if we want to live in a world without violence; it all starts with how adults behave in the presence of children (McLeod, 2016). We must also acknowledge that biology plays a huge role in determining aggression, for example testoserone levels (Hefflick, 2011). references Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Drink Aware. (2018). Alcohol and Aggression. Retrieved https://www.drinkaware.co.uk/alcohol-facts/health-effects-of-alcohol/mental-health/alcohol-and-aggression/ [accessed 15/11/18] Hefflick, N.A. (2011). Children learn aggression from parents. Retrieved https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-big-question/201111/children-learn-aggression-parents [accessed 15/11/18] Horvorth, A.T., Misra, K., Epner., A.K., & Cooper, G.M. (2018). Social learning theory of addiction and recovery implications. An American addiction centres resource. Retrieved https://www.mentalhelp.net/articles/social-learningtheory-of-addiction-and-recovery-implications/ [accessed 15/11/18] Laureate. (2017). Aggression and Violence. retrieved https://elearning.uol.ohecampus.com/bbcswebdav/institution/ukl1/20190oct/ms_lpsy/lpsy_311/readings/lpsy_311_week07_weeklynotes.pdf [accessed 05/11/18] Markowitz, S. (2001). Alcohol and violence. The national bureau of economic research. Retrieved https://www.nber.org/reporter/fall01/markowitz.html [accessed 15/11/18] Mcleod, S. (2016) Bandura social learning theory. Retrieved https://www.simplypsychology.org/bandura.html [accessed 15/11/18] Mihalic, S.W., & Elliott, D. (1997). A social learning theory model of marital violence. Journal of family violence. Pp, 21-47. Retrieved DOI: 10.1023/A:*******816102:15 [accessed 15/11/18] Myers, D.G. (2013). Social Psychology (11th ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Office for national statistics. (2015). Violent crime and sexual offences Alcohol related violence. retrieved https://ons.gov.uk/peop;epopulationandcommunity/crimeandjustice/compendium.focusonviolentcrimesexualoffences/2015-02-12/chapter5violentcrimeandsexualoffencesalcoholrelatedviolence [accessed 15/11/18]

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