Teacher Evaluation A Conceptual Framework and examples of Country Practices DECEMBER 2009 This paper was prepared for presentation at the OECD-Mexico Workshop Towards a Teacher Evaluation Framework in Mexico: International Practices, Criteria and Mechanisms, held in Mexico City on 1-2 December 2009. It is based on work developed within the context of the OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes, a project launched in late 2009. The paper is based on three pieces of work: OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment for Improving School Outcomes: Design and Implementation Plan for the Review (OECD, 2009a); Teacher Evaluation in Portugal: OECD Review (Santiago et al., 2009); Teacher Evaluation: Current Practices in OECD countries and a Literature Review (Isor, 2009). The paper was prepared by Paulo Santiago and Francisco Benavides of the OECD Secretariat. TABLE OF CONTENTS -2 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes TABLE OF CONTENTS 1: INTRODUCTION3 2: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK TO ANALYSE TEACHER EVALUATION 3 3: DESIGN AND GOVERNANCE OF A COMPREHENSIVE FRAMEWORK FOR TEACHER EVALUATION..7 3.1 Introduction..7 3.2 Aims and objectives of teacher evaluation ..7 3.3 Responsibilities for teacher evaluation ..9 3.4 Articulation with other components of the evaluation and assessment framework..10 4: TEACHER EVALUATION PROCEDURES.11 4.1 Introduction11 4.2 Character and nature of teacher evaluation12 4.3 Reference standards, aspects evaluated and evaluation criteria..12 4.4 Instruments and information sources14 5: COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHER EVALUATION AND FOR USING FEEDBACK 16 5.1 Introduction17 5.2 Evaluators ..17 5.3 Skill development for evaluation 18 6. USE OF EVALUATION RESULTS ..18 6.1 Introduction19 6.2 Formative use of results..19 6.3 Summative use of results19 7. IMPLEMENTATION OF TEACHER EVALUATION20 8. CONCLUDING REMARKS ..22 REFERENCES.23 APPENDIX: EXAMPLES OF COUNTRY PRACTICES 25 CHILE..26 ENGLAND…28 ONTARIO (CANADA), New Teachers……30 ONTARIO (CANADA), Experienced Teachers..32 PORTUGAL..34 SINGAPORE.36 TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -3 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes 1: INTRODUCTION As the most significant resource in schools, teachers are critical to raise education standards. Improving the efficiency and equity of schooling depends, in large measure, on ensuring that teachers are highly skilled, well resourced, and motivated to perform at their best. Raising teaching performance is perhaps the policy direction most likely to lead to substantial gains in student learning (OECD, 2005). In turn, the effective monitoring and evaluation of teaching is central to the continuous improvement of the effectiveness of teaching in a school. It is essential to know the strengths of teachers and those aspects of their practice which could be further developed. From this perspective, the institution of teacher evaluation is a vital step in the drive to improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning and raise educational standards. Meaningful teacher evaluation involves an accurate appraisal of the effectiveness of teaching, its strengths and areas for development, followed by feedback, coaching, support and opportunities for professional development. It is also essential to celebrate, recognise and reward the work of teachers. TALIS results reveal that the great majority of teachers report that the appraisal and feedback they receive is beneficial, fair and helpful for their development as teachers (OECD, 2009b). This paper proposes a conceptual framework to analyse teacher evaluation. It elaborates on the main components of a comprehensive teacher evaluation model and explains the main aspects to be taken into account for designing a teacher evaluation model. Following the overall description of the conceptual framework in Section 2, the paper analyses five main aspects: the design and governance of a comprehensive framework for teacher evaluation (Section 3); teacher evaluation procedures (Section 4), competencies for teacher evaluation and for using feedback (Section 5); use of evaluation results (Section 6); and implementation of teacher evaluation (Section 7). Section 8 offers some concluding remarks. Finally, examples of country practices are presented in the Annex in accordance to the conceptual framework developed in the paper. 2: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK TO ANALYSE TEACHER EVALUATION A key challenge is to understand the complex range of features associated with teacher evaluation. Figure 1 provides a conceptual framework summarising the aspects involved and the way they interconnect. The over-arching policy objective is to ensure that teacher evaluation contributes to the improvement of student outcomes through enhanced teaching performance and improved teaching practices. The conceptual framework has six main interrelated aspects. Unit Assessed: Who? The subject of the evaluation is the individual teacher but teacher evaluation is to be analysed as part of an evaluation and assessment framework which includes other components such as student assessment, school evaluation and system evaluation. Capabilities to assess and to use feedback: By Whom? This aspect concerns the preparation to evaluate, to be evaluated and to use the results of an evaluation as well as the choice of the groups undertaking these functions. It includes issues such as: the choice of the evaluators and TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -4 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes the development of the skills to perform the assessment of a teacher; the preparation by teachers to be the subject of an evaluation; the development of competencies to effectively use the results of an evaluation for the improvement of teaching practices; and the design of agencies to review teacher evaluation results with a view to hold agents accountable and to inform policy development. Aspects assessed: What? Teacher evaluation processes concentrate on the core activity of teaching, typically covering areas such as planning and preparation, the classroom environment and instruction itself. But they also cover the remaining responsibilities of teachers such as their contribution to school development, links to the surrounding community and professional development activities. Evaluation technology: How? This aspect refers to the features of a given approach to teacher evaluation, that is the mix of instruments, criteria and standards, purposes, knowledge and skills used in a specific teacher evaluation model. For instance, the latter may be based on a range of instruments such as self-evaluation, classroom observation and a teacher portfolio; be focussed on teacher instruction; be undertaken in relation to reference standards for the teaching profession; have both improvement and accountability purposes; and be based on experienced peers. Hence, this aspect refers to the way different aspects are combined to produce a given teacher evaluation model. Purposes: For what? This encompasses the objectives of a particular teacher evaluation process and the mechanisms designed to ensure that evaluation results are used in a way such objectives are reached. The objectives of a teacher evaluation process typically consist of improvement and accountability. Examples of mechanisms to use evaluation results include performance feedback, professional development plans, and financial and other rewards. Agents involved: With whom? This mostly deals with the implementation aspects of teacher evaluation procedures. It relates to the involvement of a range of stakeholders such as parents, students, teachers, school leaders, teacher unions, educational administrators and policy makers in the development and implementation of teacher evaluation and assessment processes. Teacher evaluation issues cannot be studied in isolation. Societal, school system, and school-level factors all influence the design of teacher evaluation policies. These factors influence the design of approaches to teacher evaluation in terms of the needs for new policy initiatives, the factors that constrain policy opportunities, and the factors that influence policy implementation, impact and cost. Without an adequate understanding of the range of factors involved, and the ways they influence the impact of teacher evaluation policies, there is a risk of developing ineffective approaches to teacher evaluation. Examples of societal factors are: Political environment Demography and cultural diversity Economic conditions, labour market trends Role of media and general perceptions of schooling and teachers Public and private resources for schooling Evaluation and assessment policies in the public sector TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -5 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes Who? Unit assessed Instruments Teaching classroom observation Teacher self-evaluation Teacher portfolio School selfevaluation School external evaluation Performance indicators Surveys Student testing / assessment Student national examination (highstakes) Mechanisms to use feedback Performance feedback Professional development / formative implications Financial and other implications / recognition and reward Sanctions Information / Publication of results Policy adjustments / development Planning and preparation The classroom environment Instruction Professional responsibilities System School Classroom Teacher evaluation Student assessment School evaluation System evaluation For what? Purposes Accountability Improvement Evaluators Whom? Inspection, peers, school leaders Skills and know how to perform assessment What? Scope/Elements assessed By whom? Capabilities to assess and to use feedback Assessed Teachers Skills and know how to perform evaluation Users of feedback Whom? Teachers, school leaders, educ. administrators, policy makers Skills and know how to use feedback Evaluation agencies Whom? Schools, inspectorate, Ministry Skills and know how to review evaluation results Criteria and standards Outcome objectives Reference standards Performance criteria How? Evaluation Technology Methodology and procedures: mix of instruments, criteria, purposes, knowledge and skills, and scope to assess a given teacher Degree of differentiation of procedure by type of teacher Interrelation between teacher evaluation and other types of evaluation Teaching performance to improve student outcomes With whom? Agents involved Students, teachers and school leaders Educational administrators and policy makers Parents, communities, taxpayers Teachers unions, educators, education professionals Figure 1: A Conceptual Framework for Teacher Evaluation TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -6 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes Examples of school system factors are: Distribution of responsibilities across educational authorities School governance and autonomy Structure of schooling Curriculum, academic standards, learning time Market mechanisms / school choice Allocation of resources within school system Career and reward/incentive structures for teachers and school leaders Teacher education and certification policies Roles and views of stakeholder groups Examples of school-level factors are: Socio-economic context of schools Management, leadership and distribution of responsibilities within school Professional activities of teachers and other school personnel Teaching and learning arrangements Community and family involvement Learning conditions, support structures In the next Sections, this paper will further analyse the five main areas of the conceptual framework. These are central in the development of a comprehensive teacher evaluation model: Design and governance Evaluation procedures Competencies for evaluation and for using feedback Use of evaluation results Implementation TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -7 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes 3: DESIGN AND GOVERNANCE OF A COMPREHENSIVE FRAMEWORK FOR TEACHER EVALUATION 3.1 Introduction Designing and governing a comprehensive framework for teacher evaluation entails a range of aspects. First, it needs to be framed in the context of the overall objectives for schooling and the approach to its development depends on a range of established practices in the school system such as the extent of school autonomy, the existence of national curricula and standards, or the culture of evaluation. Second, the purposes of the teacher evaluation framework need to be clearly defined. In particular, it needs to be clear what aspects teacher evaluation seeks to monitor and improve. The framework also needs to establish strategies to address the tension between the typical purposes of improvement and the accountability. Overall, teacher evaluation contributes to creating a knowledge-rich teaching profession in which teachers develop a research role alongside their teaching role, with teachers engaging more actively with new knowledge, and benefiting from support structures to generate improvement. Third, there needs to be a clear understanding of the responsibilities of the different educational actors within the teacher evaluation framework. Educational authorities at several levels, agencies in charge of quality assurance such as inspectorates, schools, parents and school communities, teachers and students play different roles in ensuring improvement and accountability in the teaching profession. Fourth, there needs to be a reflection on the way teacher evaluation articulates with the remaining components of the evaluation and assessment framework such as school evaluation, student assessment and system level evaluation. A particularly important aspect is how teacher evaluation is complementary to, avoids duplication with and is consistent in objectives with the remaining components of the evaluation and assessment framework. The following three key aspects are analysed in turn: Aims and objectives of teacher evaluation; Responsibilities for teacher evaluation; and Articulation with other components of the evaluation and assessment framework. 3.2 Aims and objectives of teacher evaluation Two major purposes Teacher evaluation has typically two major purposes. First, it seeks to improve the teacher own practice by identifying strengths and weaknesses for further professional development the improvement function. Second, it is aimed at ensuring that teachers perform at their best to enhance student learning the accountability function. TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -8 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes The improvement function Teacher evaluation for improvement focuses on the provision of feedback useful for the improvement of teaching practices, namely through professional development. It involves helping teachers learn about, reflect on, and improve their practice. This typically occurs with account of the school context so professional development opportunities of an individual teacher are aligned with the school development plan. The accountability function The accountability function of teacher evaluation focuses on holding teachers accountable for their performance associating it to a range of consequences for their career. It seeks to set incentives for teachers to perform at their best. It typically entails performance-based career advancement and/or salaries, bonus pay, or the possibility of sanctions for underperformance. Teacher evaluation for accountability is summative in nature and usually involves evaluating performance at nodal points in a teachers career. It also works as a means to provide recognition to teachers. The tension between the improvement and the accountability functions Combining both the improvement and accountability functions into a single teacher evaluation process raises difficult challenges. When the evaluation is oriented towards the improvement of practice within schools, teachers are typically open to reveal their weaknesses, in the expectation that conveying that information will lead to more effective decisions on developmental needs and training. However, when teachers are confronted with potential consequences of evaluation on their career and salary, the inclination to reveal weak aspects of performance is reduced, i.e. the improvement function is jeopardised. Also, using the same evaluation process for both purposes undermines the usefulness of some instruments (such as self-evaluation), and creates an additional burden on evaluators as their decisions have somewhat conflicting consequences (e.g. tension between improving performance by identifying weaknesses and limiting career progression, if the evaluation prevents teachers from advancing in their career). In practice, countries rarely use a pure form of teacher evaluation model but rather a unique combination that integrates multiple purposes and methodologies (Stronge and Tucker, 2003). These risks are compounded in contexts of lack of maturity of teacher evaluation as when evaluation is not ingrained in the school culture, evaluatees and evaluators have little experience, or evaluators have not had their legitimacy recognised. To some extent trying to achieve improvement through accountability causes tensions. An emphasis on accountability may in some instances lead teachers to feel insecure or fearful and reduce their appreciation of their work (OECD, 2009b). By contrast, teachers and their unions expect opportunities of social recognition of their work and opportunities for professional growth through the development of a formative system of teacher evaluation (Avalos and Assael, 2006). Teacher evaluation for improvement purposes is likely to benefit from conditions such as: A non-threatening evaluation context; A culture of mutually providing and receiving feedback; Clear individual and collective objectives with regard to improving teaching within the school as well as a sharing of school objectives; Simple evaluation instruments such as self-evaluation forms, classroom observation, and structured interviews; A supportive school leadership; TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -9 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes Opportunities to enhance competencies as well as resources and means to improve practice; Teacher evaluation integrated in a system of school self-evaluation and quality assurance. In turn, teacher evaluation for accountability is likely to benefit from conditions such as: An independent and objective assessment of the teachers performance; National-level standards and criteria across schools; An evaluation component external to the school and more formal processes; Well-established rules regarding the consequences of the evaluation; Clear individual objectives with regard to all aspects of a teachers performance. Well-trained, competent evaluators of teaching performance; Impact on professional development plan. Possibilities for appeal for teachers who feel they have not been treated fairly. 3.3 Responsibilities for teacher evaluation Responsibilities for teacher evaluation are typically shared between educational authorities, including quality assurance agencies such as inspectorates, schools and their leadership, and teachers themselves. The role of educational authorities Educational authorities play a major role in the conception and application of teacher evaluation, since they set the national learning outcome objectives, agree standards for the teaching profession and establish the norms that regulate teacher evaluation. In some countries, they play a direct role in the implementation and monitoring of teacher evaluation procedures. This might include the design of specific evaluation tools and instruments, the determination of evaluation criteria, the distribution of evaluation duties, and the follow-up on evaluation results. In other countries, educational authorities establish general principles and guidelines only and give schools considerable leeway to adapt the teacher evaluation model to their particular circumstances (for instance, letting schools define evaluation criteria). The role of inspectorates In many countries education inspectorates take full responsibility for teacher evaluation. This includes developing teacher evaluation procedures and undertaking individual teacher evaluations with school inspectors taking the role of evaluators. In others, the inspectorate does not take responsibility for individual teacher evaluations but, instead, has an important role in stimulating both the quality of school leadership and the quality of teaching. This is typically done through feeding back the results of external school evaluation, mostly consisting of feedback on leadership and management, feedback on the quality of the teaching and learning processes, and feedback on school climate. In general, the Inspectorate also has an eminent role in modelling and disseminating good practice in teacher evaluation. The role of schools and school leadership The effective operation of teacher evaluation depends to a great extent on the way the concept and practice of school leadership is established in schools. The role of school leaders in teacher evaluation differs across countries. In some countries, it may consist of the simple implementation of centrallydictated regulations. In this case, real and recognised pedagogical leadership is necessary to use the teacher evaluation process developmentally and avoid the image of a bureaucratic device. TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -10 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes In other countries, school leaders take full responsibility for the evaluation of individual teachers. In Finland, the school director is the pedagogical leader, responsible for the teachers in her school and for the implementation of measures needed to enhance teaching quality. As a result, most of Finnish schools have a system that includes annual discussions aimed at evaluating the teachers fulfillment of individual objectives set up during the previous year and determining developmental needs for the following year (UNESCO, 2007). The complex interrelationship of personnel and career development and school improvement requires that the evaluation, management, and improvement processes are embedded and integrated in a system of school quality assurance. The role of teachers In some systems, teacher evaluation is based on reviews by peers, often more experienced and with more responsibilities. This is more typical of evaluation for improvement purposes. Evidence shows the power of developmental peer observation of lessons with clear foci and effective feedback in making a strong contribution to notching up the quality of instruction. When peers are the evaluators in accountability-driven teacher evaluation procedures, issues of legitimacy are particularly relevant to address. 3.4 Articulation with other components of the evaluation and assessment framework The individual evaluation of teachers and the collective responsibility for school teaching quality Since systems of school evaluation and teacher appraisal and feedback have both the objective of maintaining standards and improve student performance, there are likely to be great benefits from the synergies between school evaluation and teacher evaluation. To achieve the greatest impact, the focus of school evaluation should either be linked to or have an effect on the focus of teacher evaluation (OECD, 2009b). Taking forward human resources management is ideally embedded in a system of school quality assurance, where the school strategy and the school self-evaluation results ensure a continuous monitoring and improving of school and teacher quality. Teacher evaluation may be interlinked with school arrangements to improve teaching quality in a range of ways. First, teacher evaluation can serve the direct purpose of improving the teaching process within the school when teacher evaluation is carried out as part of school internal evaluation, and distinct from the formal individual assessment of teachers. Teacher evaluation for improvement purposes as part of internal school evaluation is usually carried out by the school head or the school management team. Results from this kind of teachers assessment can be used to identify teaching needs and contribute to the definition of the school plan in order to improve the teaching process within the school. Second, school arrangements and teacher evaluation are interlinked when the contribution of the individual teacher to school development is assessed as part of the individual assessment of teachers. In a number of countries, teachers are increasingly assessed both as individuals personally responsible for their students and as members of the school teaching staff. Areas of assessment include teachers professional responsibilities such as professional development, contribution to school management, engagement with the surrounding community, etc. Third, school arrangements and teacher evaluation can also be linked when professional development activities for teachers which result from their individual appraisal are planned in the context of the general development plan of the school. Several countries now link professional development to the developmental priorities of the school and co-ordinate in-service education in the school accordingly (OECD, 2005). TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -11 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes Use made of teacher evaluation results for school evaluation Results of individual teacher appraisals are seldom used for external school evaluation. This may be explained by the fact that in most countries, teacher evaluation and school evaluation serve distinct purposes. Individual teacher evaluation usually has a limited focus as it is designed to identify priorities for individual professional development. The use of results from individual teacher evaluations is more spread in the context of internal school evaluations. In some countries, such results are taken into account by school heads when assessing teaching quality in their school. Teacher assessments can thus assist with the development of improvement plans for schools. Articulation between school evaluation, teacher evaluation and student assessment School evaluation, teacher evaluation and student performance results may also be interlinked. Whether as part of internal or external school evaluation, student results in national standardised assessments are becoming a basis for judging the performance of a school and, indirectly, its teaching team (e.g. Sweden, Scotland). The current shift from processes to results-based teachers evaluation is a step towards closing the gap between individual and collective forms of accountability. In an increasing number of countries, monitoring mechanisms are concerned with teachers both as individuals and members of the school team (Eurydice 2008). In Chile, for instance, teachers are rewarded collectively when they work in schools which are identified as high-performing by the National Performance Evaluation System of Subsidized Schools (SNED) (OECD, 2005). Policies for the individual appraisal of teachers based on students results have also emerged but are less common (see Section 4.4 for issues associated with the use of student results for the evaluation of individual teachers). 4: TEACHER EVALUATION PROCEDURES 4.1 Introduction Establishing effective teacher evaluation procedures is challenging at several levels: accuracy of the measurement, inclusion of all the dimensions of what is meant to be measured, consistency with the goals of the feedback exercise, adaptation to the needs of those who will use the results (teachers, school leaders, educational authorities), cost-effectiveness, and practical feasibility. Teacher evaluation requires the establishment of reference standards and evaluation criteria to allow proper assessments of performance to be made. In particular, a definition of what good teaching is needs to be developed. Performance measurement also calls for a judicious choice of instruments and sources of information. For instance, using student results to evaluate individual teachers is particularly challenging since learning outcomes are the result of a multitude of factors including the students socio-economic background. Teachers have specific needs for feedback, and therefore evaluation procedures need to be designed to meet those needs. Improving teacher evaluation effectiveness implies choosing adequate procedures for given objectives (e.g. internal vs. external process; formative vs. summative process). The following three key aspects are analysed in turn: Character and nature of teacher evaluation; TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -12 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes Reference standards, aspects evaluated and evaluation criteria; and Instruments and information sources. 4.2 Character and nature of teacher evaluation Particular features of teacher evaluation procedures include: Teachers assessed. A particular teacher evaluation model might cover the totality of teachers in the system or a subset of teachers depending on the contract type (e.g. tenured vs. contract teachers), stage of the career (e.g. beginner vs. experienced), level of education (e.g. primary vs. secondary education), and type of education (e.g. general programmes, vocational programmes of adult education). Character of evaluation. Teacher evaluation may be mandatory or voluntary. The latter might however be linked to promotion within the career. Nature of evaluation. Teacher evaluation might be mostly externally-driven or primarily internally-based (or school-based). In the former case, aspects assessed, instruments used as well as evaluation criteria are common across schools and evaluators are predominantly external to the school of the assessed teacher. In the latter case, the school takes responsibility for designing specific evaluation criteria and instruments, following-up evaluation results and evaluators are mostly internal to the school. Frequency. Teacher evaluation can be carried out at regular intervals (e.g. every two years), at key stages of the career (e.g. for promotion within the career), or on specific occasions such as at the end of the probationary period or for contract renewal for contract teachers. School-based teacher evaluation vs. externally-driven teacher evaluation Teacher evaluation which is mostly internal to the school has the advantage of giving the school ownership of the evaluation processes and ensuring that all aspects are carefully considered by the school. It also ensures that the school context is taken into account the individual teacher is evaluated against reference standards with criteria that account for her schools objectives and socio-educational background. However, in systems with little maturity of teacher evaluation, it might have the disadvantage that schools have little expertise in devising evaluation instruments and assessing teaching performance. Also, the use of internally devised instruments is in principle more appropriate for teacher evaluation for improvement. In terms of evaluation for accountability, however, there might be a case for using a national framework and standard procedures in the case the consequences of such teacher evaluation are at the national level and there is a risk that standards might differ across schools. 4.3 Reference standards, aspects evaluated and evaluation criteria Reference standards A fair and reliable teacher evaluation model needs reference standards to evaluate teachers relatively to what is considered as good teaching. Teaching competences and responsibilities should be listed in order to build a comprehensive definition of what teachers should know and be able to do in the exercise of their profession. The main reference standards for teacher evaluation typically are: TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -13 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes Teacher professional profiles (general profile of competencies for teachers), including specialised profiles for particular types of teachers (e.g. level of education, subject). Set of general and professional duties of teachers, including job descriptions. At the level of the school, school development plan, the internal regulation and the annual activity plan. The key element is the teacher professional profile, a clear and concise statement of what teachers are expected to know and be able to do. A fundamental precondition for the preparation of a profile of teacher competencies is a clear statement of objectives for student learning. Teachers work and the knowledge and skills that they need to be effective must reflect the student learning objectives that schools are aiming to achieve. There needs to be profession-wide standards and a shared understanding of what counts as accomplished teaching (OECD, 2005). Teacher profiles often express different levels of performance appropriate to beginning teachers, experienced teachers, and those with higher responsibilities. It is important to note that professional profiles provide the common basis to organise the key elements of the teaching profession such as initial teacher education, teacher certification (e.g. the entry exams), teachers ongoing professional development, career advancement and, of course, teacher evaluation. Aspects evaluated The above reference standards are established for key assessment domains. A reference contribution in this area is the Danielsons Framework for Teaching (1996, 2007), which is articulated to provide at the same time a road map to guide novice teachers through their initial classroom experiences, a structure to help experienced professionals become more effective, and a means to focus improvement efforts. The Framework groups teachers responsibilities into four major areas further divided into components: Planning and Preparation: demonstrating knowledge of content and pedagogy, demonstrating knowledge of students, selecting instructional goals, designing coherent instruction , assessing student learning; The Classroom Environment: creating an environment of respect and rapport, establishing a culture for learning, managing classroom procedures, managing student behavior and organising physical space; Instruction: communicating clearly and accurately, using questioning and discussion techniques, engaging students in learning, providing feedback to students, demonstrating flexibility and responsiveness; Professional Responsibilities: reflecting on teaching, maintaining accurate records, communicating with families, contributing to the school and district, growing and developing professionally, showing professionalism. Each of these components consists of several elements to evaluate. For example, the teachers knowledge of students encompasses elements such as knowledge of characteristics of age groups, knowledge of students varied approaches to learning, etc. This framework has influenced a large number of teacher evaluation systems around the world. For instance, Chiles four domains and twenty criteria of TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -14 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes assessment were largely inspired by the Framework (Avalos and Assael, 2006). Another example can be found in the Professional Standards for Teachers in England (TDA, 2007b). The work of a teacher involves considerably more than the pedagogical activities associated with student learning. It is therefore appropriate that teacher evaluation models consider professional responsibilities less directly related to the teaching itself. This recognises the fact that the demands on schools and teachers are becoming more complex and teachers have their areas of responsibility broadened. Some examples are: working and planning in teams; projects between schools; management and shared leadership; providing professional advice to parents; building community partnerships for learning; and participation in professional development (OECD, 2005). Evaluation criteria The essential basis for good practice in evaluation is the existence of clear criteria which are consistently applied by competent (trained and experienced) evaluators. This requires the development of explicit guidelines about what is expected from professional practice. Teacher evaluation procedures require setting up evaluation criteria to determine the level of performance of individual teachers for each of the aspects assessed. This typically implies the development of indicators and/or standardised forms to record teacher performance. An additional criterion is the weighting of the different aspects assessed in order to compute an overall quantitative rating, in case it is part of the teacher evaluation model. This permits then to associate the quantitative rating to a qualitative scale, e.g. unsatisfactory, basic, proficient, and distinguished. Some teacher evaluation models establish quotas for the proportion of teachers who can be rated at the top of the scale (e.g. distinguished). Such approach runs counter to a criterion-referenced evaluation. However it might be justified in cases of an incipient culture and tradition of evaluation models to preclude a situation whereby most teachers end up being rated at the top of the scale, in which case the model loses its purpose. 4.4 Instruments and information sources Gathering multiple sources of evidence about teacher practice meets the need for accuracy and fairness of the evaluation process, taking into account the complexity of what a good teacher should know and be able to do. A range of instruments and information sources are typically used to evaluate teachers. Classroom observation Teaching practices and evidence of student learning are likely to be the most relevant sources of information about professional performance. As a result, teacher evaluation is typically firmly rooted in classroom observation. Most key aspects of teaching are displayed while teachers interact with their students in the classroom. Classroom observations are the most common source of evidence used in OECD countries, whether American (e.g. Canada, Chile, United States), European (e.g. Denmark, France, Ireland, Spain) or Asian-Pacific (e.g. Australia, Japan, Korea). Such instrument shows whether the teacher adopts adequate practices in his more usual workplace: the classroom (Isor, 2009; UNESCO, 2007). Objective setting and individual interviews Most teacher evaluation models require the individual teacher to set performance objectives for a given period of time in agreement with the school management. The evaluation then assesses the extent to which such objectives were met. The setting of objectives, as well as the evaluation itself, typically involve TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -15 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes individual interviews which are an opportunity to trigger critical reflection between evaluators and teachers. Teacher self-evaluation Another common instrument used in teacher evaluation is teacher self-evaluation. The perspective of the teacher being evaluated is essential, because it allows teachers to express their own views about their performance, and reflect on the personal, organisational and institutional factors that had an impact on their teaching. Teacher portfolio An instrument which typically complements teacher self-evaluation is a teacher portfolio, providing evidence about key aspects of the teachers teaching. Different elements can compose teacher portfolios, including: lesson plans and teaching materials, samples of student work and commentaries on student assessment examples, teachers self-reported questionnaires and reflection sheets (see Isor, 2009, for a discussion on the use of portfolios including for improvement purposes versus accountability purposes). It should be noted that portfolios are not only a tool for evaluation per se, but also play a role in supporting a reflective approach to teaching practice that is a hallmark of effective teachers. Standardised form to record teacher performance across a range of dimensions Comprehensive models of teacher evaluation involve the use of standardised forms to record teacher performance across the aspects being evaluated. These are key tools used in the evaluation process which seek to capture performance across the range of domains under evaluation. Teacher testing In some countries, for particular purposes such as the access to a permanent position or entry into the profession, teachers are the subject of testing to assess their general and subject-matter competencies. In some instances, the results of such tests can be used for teacher evaluation. Student results Student results are not commonly used as sources of evidence for teacher evaluation in countries (OECD, 2005; UNESCO, 2007). Given that a wide range of factors impact on student results,1 identifying the specific contribution of a given teacher is faced with numerous statistical challenges (see Section 3.1 of Isor, 2009, for a detailed discussion). In this respect, the development of value-added models represents significant progress as they are designed to control for the individual students previous results, and therefore have the potential to identify the contribution an individual teacher made to a students achievement. However, in order to be effective, value-added models require vast amounts of data to be collected through large scale national-level student testing across levels of education and subjects, an option with prohibitive costs. Test-based accountability systems are supposed to strengthen incentives for teachers to commit themselves to helping all students to meet important centrally defined standards and fulfil goals within the national curriculum. However, they may stifle innovation for school/teacher improvement or produce 1 Student learning is influenced by many factors. These include the students own skills, expectations, motivation and behaviour along with the support they receive from their families and the influence of their peer group. In addition to the quality of teachers, other factors include school organisation, resources and climate; and curriculum structure and content. The effect of teachers is also cumulative, i.e. at a given moment in time student learning is influenced not only by the current teachers but also by former teachers. TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -16 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes unintended effects. For instance, they can lead to strategic responses on the part of teachers and schools (e.g. reallocation of efforts among topics or skills to meet the test standards at the expense of improvement, Koretz, 2005). High-stakes testing is associated with ambiguous effects on teachers practices (Jacob and Levitt, 2003). Focus on high-stakes tests may introduce incentives for preemptively retaining students and increasing special education placements of low-performing students in special programmes which are outside the accountability system. Certain practices can reduce the meaningfulness of test scores as indicators of students performance and lead to score inflation. Indeed, targeted teaching to those skills that are represented on a test can raise scores without increasing students mastery of the broader domain (Stetcher, 2002). Focus on high-stakes tests may lead to a narrowing of the curriculum. If the same test form is used repeatedly, teachers may become familiar with the specific items that appear on that form and shift their instruction accordingly (teaching to the test). Evidence of student learning progress is fundamental, but student results as an evaluation instrument are likely to be more relevant for whole-school evaluation than for individual teacher performance evaluation. This should not imply that teachers are exempted from providing evidence to demonstrate student progress in their classrooms, for instance, through specific evidence and portfolios. Surveys of students and parents An instrument that is rarely used in the context of individual teacher evaluation are surveys collecting the views of students and parents. Parents surveys are more relevant for whole-school evaluation than for individual teacher performance evaluation. As explained by Isor (2009), the little current evidence on this subject shows that parents value teacher characteristics that surprisingly depart from student achievement: the teachers ability to promote student satisfaction (Jacob and Lefgren, 2005), humane treatment of students, support for pupil learning, and effective communication and collaboration with parents (Peterson et al., 2003). TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -17 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes 5: COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHER EVALUATION AND FOR USING FEEDBACK 5.1 Introduction The effectiveness of teacher evaluation relies to a great extent on ensuring that both evaluators and evaluated teachers are in possession of the proper skills and competencies. This is crucial, for example, for evaluators to have legitimacy in the eyes of the evaluated teachers. Since teacher evaluation may have strong stakes for the assessed teachers and since school outcomes heavily depend on individual relations and cooperation at the school level, successful evaluation mechanisms require particular attention to developing competencies and defining responsibilities in the evaluation process. In addition, competencies for using feedback to improve practice are also vital to ensure that teacher evaluation procedures are effective. Teacher assessment for improvement is a key driver required in the process of school development. As a result, for instance, it is pertinent to include training for evaluation in initial teacher education alongside the development of research skills. Particular groups such as inspectorates are also in a good position to engage in modelling and disseminating good practice in teacher evaluation. It is also critical to ensure the availability of vast information and guidelines about teacher evaluation procedures to all involved in them. The following two key aspects are analysed in turn: Evaluators; and Skill development for evaluation 5.2 Evaluators As explained in Section 3, the role of evaluator is typically played by: Teachers, either internal or external to the school of the evaluated teacher. External inspectors. These can take responsibility for the evaluation of individual teachers, the evaluation of teachers playing the role of evaluators, or school leaders. School leaders. In some instances school leaders evaluate both pedagogic competencies and skills for other duties within the school. In others, school leaders evaluate non-pedagogical competencies only. The participation of multiple evaluators is often seen as a key to successful practices; at least more than one person should be involved in judging teacher quality and performance (Peterson, 2000; Stronge and Tucker, 2003). Danielson and McGreal (2000) explain that the 360-degree evaluation systems, which incorporate the participation of many kinds of evaluators, support the idea that a teachers competence may be seen from several different perspectives and that it should be exemplary (or at least adequate) from all those different angles. The case for involving more than one evaluator strengthens with high stakes evaluation (with a dominance of the accountability function). In the context of peer review, evaluators are most likely to be accomplished current teachers who are recognised as having in-depth subject knowledge and pedagogical expertise, as highly proficient and TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -18 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes successful practitioners, able to guide and support others in the teaching process. Peer evaluators are typically compensated for carrying out their role (with teaching duties reduced or extra pay) and are themselves evaluated. They also normally have experience of being evaluated as a teacher and complete a dedicated training programme. 5.3 Skill development for evaluation An area to which policy often does not devote enough attention is that of skills development for evaluation. This is a crucial area to ensure the legitimacy of evaluators and to make an effective use of evaluation results. Developing skills and competencies for teacher evaluation across the school system necessarily takes time and requires a substantial commitment from both educational authorities and the main actors involved in teacher evaluation. Considerable time is needed for explanation of teacher evaluation, consensus building among stakeholders about the indicators and norms that make up school or teacher quality, preparing and training of evaluators in terms of methodology, techniques and approaches, as well as providing time and resources for schools and teachers to prepare and understand their instruments. The success of any teacher evaluation system greatly depends on the in-depth training of the evaluators. Experience suggests that evaluators should have a range of characteristics and competencies, including: (i) background in teaching; (ii) knowledge of educational evaluation theories and methodologies; (iii) knowledge of concepts of teaching quality; (iv) familiarity with systems and procedures of educational and school quality assurance, including the role of teaching quality in school quality and the role of teaching quality in personal development; (v) understanding of instrument development, including reliability and validity of observation and other assessment tools; (vi) awareness of the psychological aspects of evaluation; (vii) expertise with the quantitative rating of an assessment; and (viii) mastering of evaluation-related communication and feedback skills. These areas should receive priority for specialised training addressed to evaluators. Given their crucial pedagogical role, school directors should benefit from dedicated training. Offers targeted at school leaders typically focus on human resources development and school quality assurance, including school self-evaluation. This usually involves personnel management, including aspects such as structured interactions with teachers, setting of objectives, linking school objectives to personnel development plans, making use of various sources of information on teaching quality and functional performance, development of instruments, and management instruments to use evaluation results. Guaranteeing that teachers are provided with support to understand the evaluation procedures and to benefit from evaluation results is also vitally important. Teachers can benefit from training modules so they know what is expected from them to be recognised as good teachers, and to be prepared to make the best use of the feedback received. This contributes for teachers to appropriate the process through support and coaching. Evaluation and feedback ought also to be important aspects offered in initial teacher education and regular professional development activities. TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -19 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes 6. USE OF EVALUATION RESULTS 6.1 Introduction Making the best use of teacher evaluation results raises a number of challenges such as feeding information on performance back to those who deliver educational services, most notably teachers and school principals; developing mechanisms for the improvement of teaching practices, notably teacher professional development; establishing rewards, support systems and consequences that flow from evaluation results; and developing the channels which ensure that information generated by teacher evaluation is used for educational policy development. These challenges highlight the importance of knowledge management in any teacher evaluation framework. The following two key aspects are analysed in turn: Formative use of results; and Summative use of results. 6.2 Formative use of results A key objective of teacher evaluation is to identify areas of improvement for individual teachers, leading to the preparation of individual improvement plans (including professional development) which take into account the overall school development plan. Without a link to professional development opportunities, the evaluation process is not sufficient to improve teacher performance, and as a result, often become a meaningless exercise that encounters mistrust or at best apathy on the part of teachers being evaluated (Danielson, 2001; Milanowski and Kimball, 2003; Margo et al. 2008). Typically, schools are provided with autonomy to determine how teacher evaluation results feed into teacher professional and school development plans. School pedagogical leadership plays the key role in ensuring the effectiveness of such link (Pont et al., 2008). Another key element are the resources made available for professional and school development. 6.3 Summative use of results Evaluation of teacher performance can also be used to determine career advancement, award performance rewards or establish sanctions for underperforming teachers. It constitutes an opportunity to recognise and reward teaching competence and performance, which is essential to retain effective teachers in schools as well as to make teaching an attractive career choice (OECD, 2005). In general, teacher evaluation frameworks might have consequences at the following levels: Career advancement. Most countries do not link directly teacher evaluation results with teacher pay but, instead, to career progression (therefore establishing an indirect link with salaries). An example is England where teachers who meet the standards for Post Threshold, Excellent and Advanced Skills Teachers also access the higher pay scale (TDA, 2007a). Most teacher evaluation models relate results to the speed at which the teacher progresses in the career. Typically, ratings in the top categories of the rating scale make the teacher progress faster in the career scale while ratings in the bottom categories of the rating scale lead to no career progression during the period associated with the evaluation. TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -20 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes Decisions at key points in career. The results of teacher evaluation can be used to make tenure decisions at the end of the probationary period, contract renewal decisions for contract decisions and might influence the chances of an application to a given school post. Performance rewards. Teacher evaluation results might be used to award rewards to teachers. Typical rewards include: the award of a one-off monetary prize (bonus pay); time allowances and sabbatical periods; opportunities for school-based research; support for post-graduate study; or opportunities for in-service education. In some instances the focus of the rewards is on group recognition and rewards are at the school or grade level rather than individual level. The bonus pay element should be approached with considerable caution. The evidence of the overall impact of such extra payments is mixed and can be contentious and potentially divisive (OECD, 2005). Sanctions for ineffective teachers. Some countries provide for sanctions for ineffective teachers beyond the standard consequences for career progression. For example, if underperformance persists following a number of evaluations, sanctions might include the removal from teaching duties (for teachers with civil servant status, this might translate into other functions within the school or another career within the civil service), or simply the termination of the contract. But early identification of underperformance is typically accompanied by a plan for in-service training for the improvement of practice. However, it needs to be kept in mind that the issues surrounding developing a closer relationship between teacher performance and reward are controversial in all countries; and research in this field is difficult and has produced mixed results. There seems to be agreement that the design and implementation of performance-based rewards are crucial to their success. As explained in Harvey-Beavis (2003), there is a wide consensus that previous attempts at introducing performance-based reward programmes have been poorly designed and implemented (Mohrman et al. 1996; Ramirez, 2001). Problems in developing fair and reliable indicators, and the training of evaluators to fairly apply these indicators have undermined attempts to implement programmes (Storey, 2000). One problem identified is poor goal clarity because of a large number of criteria, which restricts teachers understanding of the programme and makes implementation difficult (Richardson, 1999). Explanations of how, and on what criteria, teachers are assessed may be difficult to articulate. When this occurs, it is almost impossible to give constructive feedback and maintain teacher support for the programme (Chamberlin et al., 2002). TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -21 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes 7. IMPLEMENTATION OF TEACHER EVALUATION There are multiple challenges to successful implementation Implementation difficulties may arise as a result of a wide range of factors. First, there might be a defensive culture of evaluation, little tradition of peer evaluation, feedback and sharing of teaching practices. This might lead to some resistance to application of teacher evaluation by particular groups in the school system. Second, there might be some technical challenges to implementation, including: limited professional expertise of those with responsibility to evaluate; insufficient preparation of schools to implement evaluation procedures; limited understanding by teachers of the purposes and uses of evaluation; a sense of unfairness by those teachers being evaluated; the excessive workload inherent to the evaluation process; and the reluctance of many teachers to accept the legitimacy of the evaluators. Third, there might be issues of lack of resources for aspects of the teacher evaluation procedures, particularly the time needed for developmental work, observational evaluation and feedback. While comprehensive teacher evaluation models e.g. with the multiplication of instruments and evaluators are more likely to provide a solid basis to evaluate teachers, limited resources make trade-offs inevitable. As explained in Isor (2009), comprehensive teacher evaluation procedures imply greater direct and indirect costs at every stage of the process: reaching agreements on the design of the system requires time for discussions and consultations with all stakeholders (Avalos and Assael, 2006); training evaluators is expensive and requires time (Danielson, 1996, 2007); conducting evaluation processes induces additional workload for both teachers and evaluators, unless offsetting is made by reducing workload with other responsibilities (Heneman et al., 2006); and aligning broader school reforms such as professional development opportunities requires more educational resources (Heneman et al., 2007; Margo et al., 2008). It is important to address the challenges of implementation It is essential to analyse the challenges of implementation of teacher evaluation. This includes reconciling the diverging interests of stakeholders, carefully analysing policy alternatives and their likely impact and discussing them with stakeholders to aim towards consensus. Adverse effects are particularly prone to occur when consensus has not been reached on the objectives for teacher evaluation, its importance for the performance of the school system, and the practical options for implementation. Consensus is all the more precious to reach since local actors such as teachers and school leaders may be in the best position to foresee unintended consequences or judge what is feasible in practice, and since the effectiveness of teacher evaluation heavily depends on their cooperation. The role of expertise on the effectiveness of teacher evaluation policies and practices Teacher evaluation is eminently a technical matter and has a lot to benefit from worldwide evidence on best policies and practices. Some countries bring together educational researchers and distinguished teachers into an advisory group to monitor and guide the implementation of teacher evaluation. Such group is in a good position to recognise good evaluation practices, to keep abreast of relevant research developments and, as a result, to provide advice based on sound evidence. TEACHER EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -22 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes The importance of gaining the support of teachers Teacher evaluation and the resulting feedback, reflection and professional development will only work if teachers make it work. To a great extent it is the motivated teacher who ensures the successful implementation of reforms in schools. Hence, it is imperative to find ways for teachers to identify with the goals and values of teacher evaluation arrangements and practices (OECD, 2006). Teachers must be supported in understanding what the evaluation expects from them to be recognised as good teachers and in preparing adequately for the evaluation process. 8. CONCLUDING REMARKS Promoting teacher evaluation is clearly in the national interest as well as serving students and their families and communities. Teachers need feedback on their performance to help them identify how to better shape and improve their teaching practice and, with the support of effective school leadership, to develop schools as professional learning communities. At the same time, teachers should be accountable for their performance and progress in their careers on the basis of demonstrated effective teaching practice. Developing a comprehensive approach may be costly but is critical to conciliate the demands for educational quality, the enhancement of teaching practices through professional development, and the recognition of teacher knowledge, skills and competencies. The expectation is that teachers engaging in reflective practice, studying their own methods of instruction and assessment, and sharing their experience with their peers in schools, becomes regular a routine part of professional life. REFERENCES-23 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes REFERENCES Avalos, B. and J. Assael (2006), Moving from resistance to agreement: The case of the Chilean teacher performance evaluation, International Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 45, No. 4-5, pp. 254- 266. Castro Ramos, C. (2009), Teacher Evaluation in Portugal: Country Background Report for OECD, Ministry of Education, Lisbon (available from www.oecd.org/edu/teacherevaluationportugal). Chamberlin, R., T. Wragg, G. Haynes and C. Wragg (2002), Performance-related Pay and the Teaching Profession: a Review of the Literature, Research Papers in Education, 17(1), pp. 31-49. Danielson, C. (1996, 2007), Enhancing Professional Practice: a Framework for Teaching, 1st and 2nd editions, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD), Alexandria, Virginia. Danielson, C. (2001), New Trends in Teacher Evaluation, Educational Leadership, Vol. 58, No. 5, pp. 12-15. Danielson, C. and T. McGreal (2000), Teacher Evaluation to Enhance Professional Practice, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD), Alexandria, Virginia. Eurydice (2008), Levels of autonomy and responsibility of teachers in Europe, European Commission, Brussels, Education DG. Harvey-Beavis, O. (2003), Performance-Based Rewards for Teachers: A Literature Review, paper distributed at the third workshop of participating countries on OECD Activity Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers, 4-5 June, Athens, Greece. Available from www.oecd.org/edu/teacherpolicy Heneman, H., A. Milanowski, S. Kimball and A. Odden (2006), Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation as a Foundation for Knowledge- and Skill-Based Pay, Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) Policy Briefs RB-45. Heneman, H., A. Milanowski and S. Kimball (2007), Teacher Performance Pay: Synthesis of Plans, Research, and Guidelines for Practice, Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) Policy Briefs RB-46. Isor, M. (2009), Teacher Evaluation: Current Practices in OECD Countries and a Literature Review, OECD Education Working Paper No.23, OECD, Paris. Available from www.oecd.org/edu/workingpapers Jacob, B. and L. Lefgren (2005), What Do Parents Value in Education: an Empirical Investigation of Parents Revealed Preferences for Teachers, NBER Working Paper n11494. Jacob, B. and S. Levitt (2003),Rotten apples: an investigation of the prevalence and predictors of teacher cheating. Quarterly Journal of Economics 118, pp. 843877. Margo, J., M. Benton, K. Withers and S. Sodha (2008), Those Who Can?, Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR) Publications. Milanowski, A. and S. Kimball (2003), The Framework-Based Teacher Performance Assessment Systems in Cincinatti and Washoe, CPRE Working Paper Series TC-03-07. REFERENCES-24 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes Mohrman, A., S. Mohrman and A. Odden (1996), Aligning Teacher Compensation with Systemic School Reform: Skill-Based Pay and Group-Based Performance Awards, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 18(1), pp. 51-71. OECD (2005), Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers, OECD, Paris. OECD (2006), The Teaching Workforce: Meeting Aspirations and Enhancing Motivation, in Education Policy Analysis 2005, OECD, Paris. OECD (2009a), OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment for Improving School Outcomes: Design and Implementation Plan for the Review, OECD, Paris [OLIS Document EDU/EDPC(2009)3/REV1]. OECD (2009b), Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS, OECD, Paris. Peterson, K. (2000), Teacher Evaluation: A Comprehensive Guide to New Directions and Practices, 2nd edition, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Peterson, K., C. Wahlquist, J. Esparza Brown and S. Mukhopadhyay (2003), Parents Surveys for Teacher Evaluation, Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 317-330. Pont, B., D. Nusche and H. Moorman (2008), Improving School Leadership, Volume 1: Policy and Practice, OECD, Paris. Ramirez, A. (2001), How Merit Pay Undermines Education, Educational Leadership, 58(5), pp. 16-20. Richardson, R. (1999), Performance Related Pay in Schools: An Assessment of the Green Papers, A report prepared for the National Union of Teachers, The London School of Economics and Political Science. Santiago, P., D. Roseveare, G. van Amelsvoort, J. Manzi and P. Matthews (2009), Teacher Evaluation in Portugal: OECD Review, OECD, Paris (available from www.oecd.org/edu/teacherevaluationportugal). Stecher, B. M. (2002), Consequences of Large-Scale, High-Stakes Testing on School and Classroom Practices, in L. Hamilton, B. Stecher and S. Klein (eds.), Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, RAND, Santa Monica, CA, pp. 79-100. Storey, A (2000), A Leap of Faith? Performance Pay for Teachers, Journal of Education Policy, 15(5), pp. 509-23. Stronge, J. and P. Tucker (2003), Handbook on Teacher Evaluation: Assessing and Improving Performance, Eye On Education Publications. TDA (Training and Development Agency for Schools, 2007a), Professional Standards for Teachers: Why Sit Still in Your Career?, United Kingdom. TDA (Training and Development Agency for Schools, 2007b), Professional Standards for Teachers, The Training and Development Agency for Teachers: London, www.tda.gov.uk/upload/resources/pdf/s/standards_a4.pdf UNESCO (2007), Evaluacin del Desempeo y Carrera Profesional Docente: Una panormica de Amrica y Europa, Oficina Regional de Educacin para Amrica Latina y el Caribe, UNESCO Santiago, 2007. EXAMPLES OF COUNTRY PRACTICES -25 OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes APPENDIX: EXAMPLES OF COUNTRY PRACTICES EXAMPLES OF COUNTRY PRACTICES -26 26 CHILE Public schools (administrated by municipalities) System of professional teacher performance evaluation (Sistema de Evaluacin del Desempeo Profesional Docente) Aims and objectives Teachers assessed Character and nature of evaluation Agencies with responsibility for teacher evaluation Frequency of evaluation The Chilean teacher evaluation system is aimed at the improvement of teaching and consequently also of education results. It is designed to stimulate teachers to further their own improvement through learning about their strengths and weaknesses. It is based on explicit criteria of what will be evaluated, but without forcing a prescriptive model of teaching. Other aims have also been defined by those in charge of designing and implementing the evaluation system: recognition of professional merit; improvement of the status of the teaching profession; Training opportunities to overcome deficiencies; and contribution to the discussion of a new professional development model. Since 2005 it is mandatory for the totality of teachers working in schools administrat ed by municipaliti es (the public sector). It is a mandatory process for all teachers. Teacher evaluation is carried at the school level; and follows a mixed internal and external approach. The Centre for In-service Training located in the Ministry of Education (Centro de Perfeccionamiento, Experimentacin e Investigacin Pedaggica) manages the system. A consultative committee composed of representatives from the Teachers Union, the Chilean Association of Municipalities, Ministry and academics monitor and provide advice on the process. MIDE UC, a university measurement centre, is contracted to implement the process: production and revision of instruments, selection and preparation of evaluators and scorers, and analysis of the evidence gathered from the evaluation process. The implementation itself is decentralised so that in every district there is a committee directly responsible for organising the evaluation procedures. Schools principals and heads of pedagogic affairs also participate in the evaluation. Every four years. Each year the teachers who are to be evaluated are listed by the Ministry, and within a certain period of time they must present their portfolio at the district where their school is located. Reference standards Aspects covered Criteria Instruments and information sources Student results Set of national teaching standards summarised in the Framework for Good Teaching FGT (Marco para la Buena Enseanza) (2002). The teacher statute (Estatuto Docente, 1994) sets the rights and duties for teachers working in schools administrate d by the State. Based on the FGT, aspects assessed are: Preparation for teaching: mastering the knowledge of the subject matter and of pedagogical aspects. Creation of a positive classroom environment: where all students feel trusted, accepted and respected. Effective teaching for all students: the ability to engage students in their learning, and to make an effective use of students prior learning and knowledge. Professional responsibilities: the ability to reflect upon his/her teaching practices, and to establish positive relationships w/ colleagues, supervisors, parents and the school community. The weighing of the different items is formally defined by the Evaluation System. All evaluation criteria derive from FGT, including: supervisors rating on a number of indicators; and peer reviews questions and the scoring rubrics. Contextual factors are taken into account. The portfolio rubrics evaluate 8 dimensions of teaching: Organization of elements of the planning unit; Quality of lessons activities; Quality of evaluation instrument; Use of evaluation results; Reflection about teaching performance; Classroom climate; Structure of lesson; Pedagogic interaction. In each dimension 3-4 indicators are evaluated using rubrics that allow raters to fit their observation with 4 levels of performance. Self-evaluation (10% of final score) Teachers assess their own performance and can add an explanation for their rating. Supervisor evaluation (10% of final score) This instrument is a questionnaire filled out by the principal and the head of pedagogic affairs in the school. Peer evaluation (20% of final score) This instrument is based on a structured interview that a peer (a voluntary teacher from another school) conducts with the teacher under evaluation. Portfolio (60% of final score) This is the main instrument of the evaluation. Portfolios do not reflect average performance (due to the special attention and preparation involved), they allow a systematic review of teaching practices in 8 different aspects. It is organized in two modules and several products: Module 1: (1) Planning and evaluation of teaching. In this module teachers are asked to document the way they plan and evaluate a teaching unit involving 8-10 teaching hours. Teachers select specific learning goals (derived from national curricula) and offer information about their professional decisions and the reasons leading to those decisions. The module ends in a section requiring reflection about their teaching. Module 2: This module involves the video recording of a lesson. A trained cameraman tapes the teacher during a full teaching hour (40 minutes). The teacher submits the tape along with supporting information about the lesson (learning goals, teaching resources, etc.). Evaluation criteria do not include students academic results. However Chile uses student performanc e data to validate the evaluation system. EXAMPLES OF COUNTRY PRACTICES -27 27 m: missing information. Sources: Manzi, J. (2009), Individual Incentives and Teacher Evaluation: The Chilean Case. (Revised Draft February 2009); Measure Centre (MIDE UC), Universidad Catlica de Chile, Santiago. Avalos, B. and J. Assael (2006) Moving from resistance to agreement: The case of the Chilean teacher performance evaluation, International Journal of Educational Research 45 (2006) 254266. CHILE Public schools (administrated by municipalities) System of professional teacher performance evaluation (Sistema de Evaluacin del Desempeo Profesional Docente) (continued) Grading/rating Evaluators Skill development for evaluation Other features The evaluation system has a 4 performance level scheme. All instruments are rated or scored using these categories, and the final score resulting from the combination of the four instruments is translated into one of the categories: Outstanding. It corresponds to a performance that clearly and consistently is above the expected level. Competent. It corresponds to a performance that meets the expected level. Basic. It indicates that the performance only occasionally meets the expected level. Weaknesses are present, but their effects are not severe. Unsatisfactory. It indicates the presence of weaknesses that have a significant impact on teaching. Teachers assess their own performance (self evaluation). The principals and the heads of pedagogic affairs in each school carry out the supervisor evaluation. Responsibility for the peer review lies with voluntary peer teachers. Assessment of Portfolios are the responsibility of school teachers especially trained for this task Peer evaluators receive a special training for the evaluation interview. The portfolio assessors work for 6 weeks in a highly structured scoring process that is implemented in several scoring sites in the country (currently 6, all associated to university departments). Random double rating is implemented in 20% of cases to allow for assessor consistency checks. Furthermore, assessors regularly receive recalibration and retraining. Cameramen (recording the classes) are also trained. The evaluation produces 2 type of reports: During the first month of the school year which follows the year of an evaluation, teachers receive their individual Teacher Report. This is a personal and confidential document that informs teachers about their performance level in all aspects scored in each instrument. Principal and Municipal reports summarise the global performance of all teachers evaluated in each school or municipality. The report also provides comparative data at the national level, and for different subject areas and school grades. Municipal managers also receive information about the profile of unsatisfactory and basic teachers of the municipality, in order to guide teacher training targeted at those teachers. Consequences (improvement) Consequences (accountability) Responses to ineffective teachers The consequences for teachers obtaining the two lowest performance levels include the opportunity of professional development offered by the employer (municipality), with funding provided by the Ministry of Education. Since the final results of the evaluation are based on the national standards, it is easy to identify relative strengths and weaknesses of teachers and these aspects guide professional development decisions. Initial teacher education institutions receive regular information about the average performance of their former students, which enables them to adjust their education. This information is also useful for the creation of specific incentives. This teacher evaluation was implemented when other collective and individual incentives had already been established in Chile. The initial agreement about the teacher evaluation did not specify monetary incentives for high performing teachers and only included negative consequences associated with persistent negative evaluations. After the evaluations started and the law regulating the evaluation was approved, the government added a voluntary incentive for teachers receiving positive evaluations. In order to obtain the incentive, teachers who were evaluated as competent or outstanding have to pass a test measuring their knowledge in their subject area. Depending on the scores in the test, teachers could receive a raise in their basic salary ranging from 5% to 25% for up to 4 years (when they are re-evaluated). Currently about two thirds of eligible teachers take the test, and about 50% of them receive some monetary incentives. Teachers who receive the lowest rating (Unsatisfactory) have to be evaluated once a year. Following the first unsatisfactory evaluation, teachers retain their regular duties, but have to participate in professional training programmes offered by their employers. Following a second negative evaluation, they have to work under the supervision of another teacher and receive additional training. If they receive an unsatisfactory evaluation for the third time, they are dismissed. Articulation between school and teacher evaluation m Implementation aspects The Chilean experience provides an example that consequences and incentives can be attached to the evaluation, while protecting the constructive nature of the system. It is important to bear in mind, however, that the development of a teacher performance evaluation system was accepted and implemented after more than 10 years of negotiation between the Ministry of Education, the Association of Municipalities (employers) and teacher unions; and that other teacher oriented policies facilitated the implementation of this evaluation. From a policy perspective, key aspects of this experience are: The institution of a permanent negotiation table with stable goals (in this case, the development of an evaluation scheme compatible with the initial agreement between the government and teacher unions). The agreement on standards for good teaching. These standards have served as basic guides in most teaching policies, including initial teacher education. The inclusion of teacher evaluation as a component for a new teacher development process in Chile. The production and dissemination of data and reports based on the teacher evaluation, demonstrating its value for educational purposes beyond individual evaluation. Among these aspects, the relationship between teacher evaluation and student performance, the use of portfolio results as orientation for teacher training, and the use of portfolios and lesson videos as primary data for educational research. EXAMPLES OF COUNTRY PRACTICES -28 28 ENGLAND School Teacher Performance Management Aims and objectives Teachers assessed Character and nature of evaluation Responsibilities for teacher evaluation Frequenc y of evaluatio n Performance management is the process for assessing the overall performance of a teacher or head teacher, in the context of the individuals job description and the provisions of the School Teachers Pay and Conditions Document (STPCD), and making plans for the individuals future development in the context of the schools improvement plan. Performance management is being taken forward as part of the development of the new professionalism for teachers. This includes: Developing a culture where teachers and head teachers feel confident and empowered to participate fully in performance management; The acknowledgment of teachers and head teachers professional responsibility to be engaged in effective, sustained and relevant professional development throughout their careers and to contribute to the professional development of others; and The creation of a contractual entitlement for teachers to effective, sustained and relevant professional development as part of a wider review of teachers professional duties. The School Teacher Performance Management Regulations apply to teachers and head teachers covered by the School Teachers Pay and Conditions Document (STPCD). The evaluation is differentiated according to the career stage of the teacher being evaluated. Five professional stages are identified: (i) the award of the Qualified Teacher Status (Q); (ii) teachers on the main scale (Core) (C); (iii) teachers on the upper pay scale (Post Threshold Teachers) (P); (iv) Excellent Teachers (E); and (v) Advanced Skills Teachers (A). Performance management includes a mandatory annual review and three specific assessments at the request of the teacher to access each of the three top steps of the career (Post Threshold Teachers, Excellent Teachers and Advanced Skills Teachers). Teacher evaluation is carried out at the school level and follows on the whole an internal approach mostly based on evaluation by the peers. The performance management model is developed and implemented with the guidance by the Rewards and Incentives Group (RIG) (see composition under Implementation Aspects). Responsibilities for the implementation are shared as follows: Schools Governing Bodies: Establish the schools performance management policy, monitor the operation and outcomes of perform. management arrangements, and review the policy and its operation every year; Make decisions about pay and career progression based on pay recommendations made by reviewers. Head Teachers: Play an active role in their own performance management and professional development; Act as performance reviewers and, where appropriate, delegate the role of performance reviewer in its entirety; Evaluate standards of teaching and learning and ensure proper standards of professional practice are established and maintained. Teachers: Play an active role in their own performance management and professional development including taking action as agreed at review meetings; Where the role of reviewer has been delegated to them in accordance with the regulations, act as reviewers for other teachers; Contribute to the annual planning and assessment of other teachers where appropriate. Annual review for all teachers and assessmen ts to access each of the three top steps of the career at the request of the teacher. Reference standards Aspects covered Criteria Instruments and information sources Use of student results Professional standards, established in September 2007, provide statements of good teaching for each of the five stages of the career (see aspects covered next column). They provide the backdrop to discussions about performance and future development. Statements of professional duties and responsibilities of teachers, the job description and the School Teachers Pay and Conditions Document (STPCD) are also considered. At each career stage, teaching professional standards encompass three domains: Teachers professional attributes, including relationships with children and young people; attitude vis–vis the framework and the implementation of new school policies; communicating and working with others; and professional development activities. Teachers professional knowledge and understanding, including knowledge on teaching and learning; understanding of assessing and monitoring; subjects and curriculum knowledge; literacy, numeracy and ICT skills; understanding the factors affecting the achievement of diversified student groups; and knowledge on student health and well-being. Teachers professional skills, including planning, teaching, assessing, monitoring, giving feedback competencies; ability to review and adapt teaching and learning; ability to create a learning environment; capacities to develop team working and collaboration. Criteria are the responsibility of reviewers and agreed with reviewees at the beginning of an evaluation cycle. They should provide clarity about the basis on which the reviewer will assess the overall performance of the reviewee based on progress towards the achievement of objectives, classroom observation, and the other evidence. Reviewers need to consider the nature and scope of the performance criteria, their relevance and appropriateness, the circumstances of the school, the needs of the individual, and whether or not they are discriminatory. Annual Review: Objective setting. Planning and Review statement: The outcomes in relation to planning for the next cycle and the outcomes of the review of the previous cycle are recorded in a single planning and review statement. Classroom observation according to an established school protocol. The observations are those agreed in the planning and review statement (varies across teachers). The regulations specify a limit of three hours in any review cycle for classroom observation. Individual interviews: Planning and reviewing performance would normally take place in a single meeting. Other evidence at the discretion of the evaluatee: The other evidence which will be taken into account will normally be in the form of data or written feedback from specific individuals. Assessment against the post threshold teacher standards: Schools in England will normally only use the evidence recorded in a teachers performance management review statements covering the two-year period prior to a request for assessment against the post threshold teacher standards. Student results are not directly used to assess the performan ce of individual teachers. EXAMPLES OF COUNTRY PRACTICES -29 29 Source: Rewards and Incentives Group (2009), Teachers and Head teachers Performance Management: Guidance. Available from www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/payandperformance/performancemanagement; and Isor (2009), Teacher Evaluation: Current Practices in OECD Countries and a Literature Review, OECD Education Working Paper No.23, OECD, Paris. Available from www.oecd.org/edu/workingpapers. ENGLAND School Teacher Performance Management (continued) Rating Evaluators/Reviewers Skill development for evaluation Outcomes of the annual review are qualitative and inform professional development. Assessments to access the top stages of the career are associated with the promotion decision. Head teachers: The head teacher may either be the reviewer for other teachers, including members of the leadership group, Excellent Teachers and Advanced Skills Teachers, or may delegate this role in its entirety. The head teacher cannot retain elements of the process whilst delegating others. It is the head teacher who assesses and determined whether the standards for post-threshold are met. Teachers: if delegated the role of reviewer. RIG believes that wherever possible the role of reviewer should be delegated to the teachers line manager, i.e. the person who directs, manages and has a post of responsibility for the area in which the reviewee mainly works. 2 or 3 school governors review the head teachers performance on an annual basis. The schools governing body is also required to appoint an adviser external to the school to provide advice to governors in relation to the performance management of the head teacher (e.g. a member of another school; education consultant). The guidance of the RIG is that all reviewers should receive appropriate preparation for their role. Preparatory training is available for evaluators/reviewers. Schools governing bodies need to ensure that reviewers for the head teacher receive appropriate preparation for their role. Consequences (improvement) Consequences (accountability) Responses to ineffective teachers Performance management is the key process that provides the context for regular discussions about teachers career aspirations and their future development, within or beyond their current career stage. The standards support teachers in identifying their professional development needs. Where teachers wish to progress to the next career stage, the next level of the framework provides a reference point for all teachers when considering future development. Whilst not all teachers necessarily want to move to the next career stage, the standards also support teachers in identifying ways to broaden and deepen their expertise within their current career stages. These frameworks are a basis for professional responsibility and contractual engagement to engage all teachers in effective, sustained and relevant professional development throughout their careers. They provide a continuum of expectations about the level of engagement in professional development that provides clarity and appropriate differentiation for each career stage. The annual review includes, where the reviewee is eligible, making a recommendation on pay progression, taking into account the pay progression criteria: Reviewers do not need to make a recommendation in support of the annual increment. The only exception to this is where the reviewer, in accordance with the schools pay policy, is considering a discretionary additional point (double jumping) where provided for in the School Teachers Pay and Conditions Document (STPCD). Reviewers will need to make a recommendation where the reviewee is on the pay scale for post threshold teachers, advanced skills teachers and members of the leadership group. It is for the relevant body (either the governing body or its pay committee) to consider recommendations and make decisions about pay. The assessment for access to the three top career stages is reflected on the access to an upper pay scale. The management of human resources takes place at the school level under the responsibility of the governing boards. Individual cases of ineffective teachers are considered by the governing board in accordance with the schools regulations. Articulation between school and teacher evaluation Head teachers take account of review outcomes in school improvement planning and ensure the school produces and resources an effective plan for the professional development of its workforce. The information and data that schools collect for performance management should be capable of being used in a number of different ways, for example, for school self-evaluation and school improvement and development planning. Implementation aspects The development and implementation of the model relies on the collaboration of educational authorities, school leaders associations and teacher unions, in particular through the role of the Rewards and Incentives Group (RIG). The RIG is made of the following groups: Association of School and College Leaders, the Education Union, the Department for Children, Schools and Family, the Association for All School Leaders, the Teachers Union (NASUWT), NEOST and Voice (the Union of Education Professionals). The current model results from the adjustment of the model established in the early 2000s. It has an increased formative approach, embodied by a willingness to reinforce the link between the teacher appraisal system and teacher professional development needs relative to the school goals. The previous model was originally designed with summative purposes, aiming at evaluating teachers performance, and providing teachers with opportunities to access a higher career stage and the corresponding pay scale. However, numerous concerns about the fairness of the process and the potential perverse impacts of the procedure on teacher performance itself were addressed. EXAMPLES OF COUNTRY PRACTICES -30 30 ONTARIO (CANADA) New Teacher Induction Program: Teacher Performance Appraisal (TPA) System for New Teachers Aims and objectives Teachers assessed Character and nature of evaluation Responsibilities for teacher evaluation Frequency of evaluation In Ontario the Teacher Performance Appraisal (TPA) for New Teachers is strongly linked to the New Teacher Induction Program (NTIP). In conjunction with the orientation, mentoring and professional development and training elements of the Induction Program, the TPA process for new teachers has been designed to support and promote the continued growth and development of new teachers. This system is designed to: Assess new teachers skills, knowledge and attitudes; identify strengths and areas for growth; and plan next steps for improvement. It is also designed to: strengthen schools as learning communities in which new teachers have many opportunities to engage in professional exchange and collective inquiry that lead to continuous growth and development provide a framework to encourage improvement efforts aimed at promoting student success engage new teachers in professional dialogue that deepens their understanding of what it means to be a teacher as set out in the Ontario College of Teachers Standards of Practice for the Teaching Profession. All teachers certified by the Ontario College of Teachers (including teachers trained out-of-Province) who have been hired into permanent positions fulltime or part-time by a school board, school authority, or provincial school (board) to begin teaching for the first time in Ontario. It is a mandatory process for all teachers. Teacher evaluation is carried out at the school level and follows on the whole an internal approach mostly based on evaluation by the school principal. The Ontario Ministry of Education defines the components of the TPA system. School principals conduct the performance appraisals. They assess how effectively a teacher uses his or her skills and knowledge in the classroom. When a principal is unable to carry out appraisal obligations, legislation makes provision for these obligations to be carried out by a vice-principal or supervisory officer. Peers are involved in the development of Teacher authored professional development plans. Supervisory officer support school principal when teachers are granted with on review status, (see below). Two performanc e appraisals in the first 12 months after a new teacher begins to teach for a board. Additional appraisals are required if an appraisal in the first year results in a performance rating that is not Satisfactory. Reference standards Aspects covered Criteria Instruments and information sources Student results There are 16 competency statements set out in Ontario Reg. 99/02 of the Education Act. The appraisal process for new teachers allows teachers and principals to focus on a subset of 8 competencies, as a minimum, These are set out in schedule 2 of Ontario Reg. 99/02. Boards may also choose to evaluate teachers on additional competencies. These competences reflect the standards described in the Ontario College of Teachers Standards of Practice for the Teaching Profession. The TPA system is based on the Standards of Practice for the Teaching Profession: Commitment to Students and Student Learning: Members are dedicated in their care and commitment to students. They treat students equitably and with respect and are sensitive to factors that influence individual student learning. Members facilitate the development of students as contributing citizens of Canadian society. Professional Knowledge Members strive to be current in their professional knowledge and recognize its relationship to practice. They understand and reflect on student development, learning theory, pedagogy, curriculum, ethics, educational research and related policies and legislation to inform professional judgment in practice. Professional Practice Members apply professional knowledge and experience to promote student learning. They use appropriate pedagogy, assessment and evaluation, resources and technology in planning for and responding to the needs of individual students and learning communities. Members refine their professional practice through ongoing inquiry, dialogue and reflection. The performanc e indicators and the assessment criteria are defined at the school level by the school principal (after discussion with the teacher) and based on the Standards of Practices. Summative Report follows a ministryapproved form. Teacher authored professional development plans. (ALPs) All new teachers must participate in a Ministry-mandated New Teacher Induction Program (NTIP). The new teacher, in collaboration with his/her mentor, completes an Individual NTIP Strategy form detailing the specific components of the teachers learning plan. Once the form is completed, the new teacher will share the plan with the principal so that the principal can approve it, arrange for the supports, and allocate the appropriate resources. The Individual NTIP Strategy form is intended to serve as a vehicle for discussion and learning, as well as a means of planning, tracking, and recording the NTIP induction elements. It contains no evaluative components. This form is not a checklist. Appraisal meetings There are minimum of three appraisal meetings for each appraisal: Pre-observation meeting: to promote professional dialogue between the principal and teacher. Classroom observation: to assess the teachers skills, knowledge and attitudes. Post-observation meeting: for reflection and collaboration to promote growth and improvement. Summative reports The report is used to assess teachers overall performance and provide feedback about strengths and areas for growth. It includes: b) Competency Statements to focus on the immediate skills, knowledge and attitudes to define what is require the Teachers Standards; and b) a Rating Scale and Rubric: to assess new teachers overall performance and provide necessary feedback about strengths and areas for growth. The principal must provide the teacher with a copy of the signed summative report within 20 school days after the classroom observation Students results are not used formally for teachers appraisal. In the developm ent of their professio nal developm ent plans, new teachers may choose to reflect on parental and student input to enhance teaching and learning. EXAMPLES OF COUNTRY PRACTICES -31 31 m: missing information. Sources: Overview of the Ontario Teacher Performance Appraisal (TPA) System prepared by the Ontario Ministry of Education (Nov 2009). For additional information: refer to Part X.2 of the Education Act, and O. Reg. 266/06, O. Reg. 99/02, and O. Reg. 98/02 under the Education Act for further details. For references to competencies, forms, and additional information, please refer to the manuals that can be found at: NTIP: Manual for Performance Appraisal of New Teachers at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/teacher/newTeachers.html and Performance Appraisal of Experienced Teachers, Technical Requirements Manual at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/teacher/teachers.html. ONTARIO (CANADA) New Teacher Induction Program: Teacher Performance Appraisal (TPA) System for New Teachers (continued) Grading/rating Evaluators Skill development for evaluation A two-point rating scale is used in each performance appraisal. For the initial appraisal the scale is Satisfactory or Development Needed. For the subsequent appraisal the scale is Satisfactory or Unsatisfactory. An Unsatisfactory performance rating cannot be made unless a teacher has received a previous Development Needed rating. Responsibility for the assessment of teachers overall performance and for providing feedback about strengths and areas for growth lies with the school principal. Mentors guide teachers in the New Teacher Induction Program (NTIP) All mentors participating in the New Teacher Induction Program (NTIP) are experienced teachers who volunteer to act as mentors. Selection and matching with mentee are done according to a systematic process that includes input from the mentee and mentor. Mentoring models may vary according to the school context and individual teacher needs. For example, mentors may be paired one-on-one or in teams, or mentoring sessions may be conducted electronically. Consequences (improvement) Consequences (accountability) Responses to ineffective teachers The principal works with a teacher to develop an Improvement Plan which sets out the steps the teacher should take to improve his or her performance. If a New Teacher obtains a Development Needed grade, an Enrichment Plan would be developed. If a teacher obtains an Unsatisfactory rating, another Enriched Plan would be developed and the teacher goes on Review status. m After two consecutive Unsatisfactory ratings, the teachers employment will be recommended for termination. After termination, the Ontario College of Teachers will be notified. While the teacher is on review status, the principal and supervisory officer can jointly determine to omit the additional appraisal and recommend the teachers employment termination in order to protect the best interests of students. Articulation between school and teacher evaluation m Implementation aspects The concept of the NTIP was recommended to the Ministers Education Partnership Table by the Working Table on Teacher Development. The Working Table was comprised of key education partners, including representatives of faculties of education, new teachers, parents organizations, representatives of teachers and trustee representatives. EXAMPLES OF COUNTRY PRACTICES -32 32 ONTARIO (CANADA) Teacher Performance Appraisal (TPA) System for Experienced Teachers Aims and objectives Teachers assessed Character and nature of evaluation Responsibilities for teacher evaluation Frequency of evaluation The process is designed to: foster teacher development; provide meaningful appraisals that encourage professional learning and growth; and identify opportunities for additional support where required. The appraisal process for experienced teachers builds on the New Teacher Induction Program (NTIP) performance appraisal for new teachers (introduced in June 2006). Experienced teachers who have not participated in the NTIP will also benefit from this growth-focused appraisal process. Teachers who have successfully completed the New Teacher Induction Program or, subject to any extension provided for in the regulations, have completed their 24-month new teaching period. It is a mandatory process for all teachers. Teacher evaluation is carried out at the school level and follows on the whole an internal approach mostly based on evaluation by the school principal. The Ontario Ministry of Education defines the components of the TPA system. Principals conduct the performance appraisals. They assess how effectively a teacher uses his or her skills and knowledge in the classroom. When a principal is unable to carry out appraisal obligations, legislation makes provision for these obligations to be carried out by a vice-principal or supervisory officer. Supervisory officers support school principals when teachers are granted with on review status, (see below). One performance appraisal in an evaluation year, every five years. Principals may conduct additional appraisals if they consider it advisable to do so in light of circumstances relating to the teachers performance. Reference standards Aspects covered Criteria Instruments and information sources Student results There are 16 competency statements set out in Ontario Reg. 99/02 of the Education Act. In assessing the teachers performance, the principal must consider all 16 competencie s set out in Schedule 1 of this regulation These competencie s reflect the standards described in the Ontario College of Teachers Standards of Practice for the Teaching Profession. The TPA system is based on the Standards of Practice for the Teaching Profession: Commitment to Students and Student Learning: Members are dedicated in their care and commitment to students. They treat them equitably and with respect and are sensitive to factors that influence individual student learning. Members facilitate the development of students as contributing citizens of Canadian society. Professional Knowledge Members strive to be current in their professional knowledge and recognize its relationship to practice. They understand and reflect on student development, learning theory, pedagogy, curriculum, ethics, educational research and related policies and legislation to inform professional judgment in practice. Professional Practice Members apply professional knowledge and experience to promote student learning. They use appropriate pedagogy, assessment and evaluation, resources and technology in planning for and responding to the needs of individual students and learning communities; and refine their professional practice through ongoing inquiry, dialogue and reflection. Leadership in Learning Communities Members promote and participate in the creation of collaborative, safe and supportive learning communities; recognize their shared responsibilities and their leadership roles in order to facilitate student success. Members maintain and uphold the principles of the ethical standards in these learning communities. Ongoing Professional Learning Members recognize that a commitment to ongoing professional learning is integral to effective practice and to student learning. Professional practice and selfdirected learning are informed by experience, research, collaboration and knowledge. The performanc e indicators and the assessment criteria are defined at the school level by the school principal (after discussion with the teacher) and based on the Standards of Practices. Summative Report follows a ministryapproved form. Teacher authored professional development plans (ALPs). Each teacher must develop or review and update an ALP each year. The ALP includes the teachers professional growth objectives, proposed action plan and timelines for achieving those objectives. The ALP is teacher authored and directed and is developed in a consultative and collaborative manner with the principal. Teachers who move from the new to the experienced teacher appraisal process must develop an ALP in their first year as an experienced teacher. Each year thereafter, teachers in consultation with their principal, must review and update their ALP, as necessary from the previous year. They must take into account their learning plan from the previous year, their learning and growth over the year and the summative report of their most recent performance appraisal. In an evaluation year, the teacher and principal must meet to review and update the teachers ALP as part of the performance appraisal. Appraisal meetings There are three appraisal meetings for each appraisal: Pre-observation meeting: to promote professional dialogue between the principal and teacher. Classroom observation: Observation to assess the teachers skills, knowledge and attitudes. Post-observation meeting: to provide opportunities for reflection and collaboration to promote growth and improvement. Summative reports To assess teachers performance and provide feedback about strengths and areas for growth. This reports includes: a) Competency Statements: to focus the appraisal on the immediate skills, knowledge and attitudes that reflect the Teachers Standards; and b) a Rating Scale and Rubric: to assess overall performance The principal must provide the teacher with a copy of the report within 20 school days after the classroom observation. Students results are not used formally for teachers appraisal. Experienc ed teachers are encourag ed to include parent and student input in their developm ent, review or update of their ALP each year. EXAMPLES OF COUNTRY PRACTICES -33 33 m: missing information. Sources: Overview of the Ontario Teacher Performance Appraisal (TPA) System prepared by the Ontario Ministry of Education (Nov 2009). For additional information: refer to Part X.2 of the Education Act, and O. Reg. 266/06, O. Reg. 99/02, and O. Reg. 98/02 under the Education Act for further details. For references to competencies, forms, and additional information, please refer to the manuals that can be found at: NTIP: Manual for Performance Appraisal of New Teachers at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/teacher/newTeachers.html and Performance Appraisal of Experienced Teachers, Technical Requirements Manual at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/teacher/teachers.html. ONTARIO (CANADA) Teacher Performance Appraisal (TPA) System for Experienced Teachers (continued) Grading/rating Evaluators Skill development for evaluation Two-level rating scale: Satisfactory, Unsatisfactory Responsibility for the assessment of teachers overall performance and for providing feedback on strengths and areas for growth lies with the school principal. m Consequences (improvement) Consequences (accountability) Responses to ineffective teachers The principal works with a teacher to develop an Improvement Plan which sets out the steps the teacher should take to improve his or her performance. An Improvement Plan is developed after first Unsatisfactory rating; and teacher will be granted a On Review status after two consecutive Unsatisfactory ratings. m There will be a recommendation for employment termination after three consecutive Unsatisfactory appraisals; Ontario College of Teachers notified after termination. While the teacher is On Review status, the principal and supervisory officer can jointly decide to omit the 3rd appraisal and recommend the termination of the teachers employment to protect the best interests of students. Articulation between school and teacher evaluation m Implementation aspects The concept of the NTIP was recommended to the Ministers Education Partnership Table by the Working Table on Teacher Development. The Working Table was comprised of key education partners, including representatives of faculties of education, new teachers, parents organizations, representatives of teachers and trustee representatives. EXAMPLES OF COUNTRY PRACTICES -34 34 PORTUGAL National system of teacher performance evaluation Aims and objectives Teachers assessed Character and nature of evaluation Responsibilities for teacher evaluation Frequency of evaluation Teacher evaluation as both a tool for professional development and improvement of teaching practice, as well as a regulator for career advancement (as the main accountability element). Eight specific objectives are defined: To contribute to the improvement of teachers pedagogical practice To contribute to increasing individual improvement of the teacher To distinguish and reward the best professionals To promote cooperative work among teachers, with the aim of improving students learning outcomes To promote excellence and the quality of services provided to community To permit the inventory of the teachers training needs To detect the factors that influence the professional output of teachers To provide management indicators for teaching staff The model covers the totality of teachers in the system, tenured and contract teachers at all levels of education, at any stage of the career, and teaching any type of education (regular, professional, recurrent, adult courses). It is a mandatory process for all teachers. Teacher evaluation is carried out at the school level and follows on the whole an internal approach mostly based on evaluation by the peers. The Ministry of Education defines the norms that regulate the evaluation model, which are supposed to establish general principles and guidelines only. It also monitors the application of the model. The school takes responsibility for the process timeline, the design of specific evaluation tools and instruments, the distribution of evaluation duties, the identification of the evaluators needs, and the follow-up on evaluation results. At the end of every two school years as long as the teacher taught for at least half of the period of the time under evaluation. There are two special cases: evaluation of teachers on the probationary year, which relates only to work done during one school year; and the evaluation of contract teachers which should be carried out at the end of the respective contract (which can be less than one year) and before its possible renewal. Reference standards Aspects covered Criteria Instruments and information sources Use of student results The general profile of competence for teachers. Set of general and professional duties of teachers, stipulated in various pieces of legislation, such as the Teaching Career Statute. School development plan, the internal regulation and the annual activity plan. The teacher evaluation model has two components: The scientific-pedagogical performance of the teacher: preparation and organisation of teaching activities; performance of teaching activities; the pedagogical relationship with pupils; and the process of assessing students progress. The functional performance of the teacher assessing the contribution of the teacher to the fulfilment of the schools mission and objectives using criteria such as attendance, the carrying out of duties, participation in projects, links with the community and participation in in-service training and personal development activities. The standardised forms to record teacher performance developed by the schools specify the range of domains under evaluation. The performance indicators and the assessment criteria are defined at the school level. The weighing of the different items into a final classification is also a school decision. Objective setting mandatory for each teacher and approved by the school management. Self-evaluation, implemented via the completion of a specific form discussed between the evaluatee and the evaluator and which makes explicit the teachers contribution to the achievement of the objectives, particularly those regarding the improvement of the students learning outcomes. Standardised forms to record teacher performance across a range of dimensions. These are two specific forms one concerning the scientific-pedagogical evaluation and one concerning the functional evaluation which list the aspects to be assessed, and specify the criteria and indicators to be used in the assessment for each of the aspects assessed. Classroom observation, which is mandatory for teachers undergoing the scientific-pedagogical evaluation. Individual interviews, when requested by the teacher being evaluated, to trigger critical reflection between evaluators and evaluatees. Other evidence such as reports certifying the accomplishment of training; pedagogical tools developed and used; and tools for student assessment. Evaluation criteria originally included students academic results and school dropout rates (as well as assessments by students parents). But these criteria were eliminated from the model. EXAMPLES OF COUNTRY PRACTICES -35 35 Sources: Santiago et al. (2009), Teacher Evaluation in Portugal: OECD Review, OECD, Paris; Castro Ramos (2009), Teacher Evaluation in Portugal: Country Background Report for OECD, Ministry of Education, Lisbon. Both these reports are available from www.oecd.org/edu/teacherevaluationportugal. PORTUGAL National system of teacher performance evaluation (continued) Grading/rating Evaluators Skill development for evaluation Other features There is a classification based on a five-level scale. The assessment of different aspects is made on a scale of 1 to 10. The final result is expressed as follows: Excellent from 9 to 10; Very Good from 8 to 8.9; Good from 6.5 to 7.9; Regular from 5 to 6.4; and Insufficient from 1 to 4.9. Responsibility for the scientificpedagogical evaluation lies with the coordinators of teaching departments within the school but can be delegated to a senior teacher. Responsibility for the functional evaluation lies with the school director who can delegate such functions to another member of the school management team. The scientific-pedagogical evaluation of co-ordinators is carried out by the Inspectorate while their functional evaluation is taken up by the school director. Evaluators are not accredited for their task, have no prior experience and benefited from limited training (short 25- hour programme to provide the basics of the teacher evaluation model). A small proportion of teachers benefited from a 15-hour limited training with focus on the procedures. It was established in the broader context of the integrated system of performance evaluation for public administration. The proportion of teachers that can be awarded Very Good or Excellent ratings per school is limited by quotas, applied centrally. The norms are up to 5% of teachers designated Excellent and up to 20% designated Very Good. Consequences (improvement) Consequences (accountability) Responses to ineffective teachers Schools to take responsibility for establishing individual professional development plans taking account of the annual school training plan. It is assumed that opportunities for feedback with formative purposes will be provided in particular via: (i) self-evaluation; (ii) the training plan for teachers rated Regular or Insufficient; and (iii) the planned meetings between the evaluatee and the evaluator. Progression in the career and access to the rank of senior teacher: The awarding of an Excellent for two consecutive periods reduces the time required to access the rank of senior teacher by 4 years, the attribution of an Excellent and a Very Good reduces that time by 3 years and two Very Good grants a reduction of two years. Regular or Insufficient ratings imply that the evaluation period is not counted for progression in the career. Obtaining tenure at the end of the probationary period. Contract renewal for contract teachers. Chances in the application to a post in a school, including when it involves the mobility of tenured teachers. The award of a performance prize. It is intended to award a monetary prize to tenured teachers performing teaching duties who receive two consecutive evaluations equal to or better than Very Good. The amount of this prize has yet to be decided, although it is expected to be equivalent to the teachers respective monthly salary. If the teacher holds a tenured post, the awarding of two consecutive or three nonconsecutive classifications of Insufficient determines the non-distribution of teaching duties in the following school year and, while keeping her status as a civil servant, the teacher has to move to another career in the same year or the following school year. The awarding of Regular or Insufficient is also accompanied by a plan for inservice training for the improvement of practice. Articulation between school and teacher evaluation School-level quotas for teachers who can be rated Excellent and Very Good can be increased depending on the results of the schools external evaluation carried out by the Inspectorate. In high performing schools, quotas can be extended up to 10% Excellent and 25% Very Good. Implementation aspects The teacher performance evaluation model is currently in the process of being revised. The implementation of the model has been one of the most contentious education reforms in Portugal. The implementation process has generated a continuum of organised action, mobilising teachers, politicians and the public opinion. Difficulties in implementation may be explained by three main reasons. First, the teacher evaluation model represents a major cultural departure from established practices in Portuguese schools. The model plays a key role in the policy of changing the basis on which teachers reach the upper parts of the salary scale from length of service and other fairly mechanical criteria to evidence of high competence as a teacher. Second, by the time teacher evaluation was introduced, there was a general dissatisfaction among the teaching profession resulting from earlier adjustments in the terms and conditions of employment for civil servants. Third, there were clearly technical difficulties to put the model into place as a result of its comprehensiveness and the short time span planned. The model was not implemented with the prior agreement with the teacher unions. EXAMPLES OF COUNTRY PRACTICES -36 36 SINGAPORE Enhanced Performance Management System (EPMS) Teaching Track Aims and objectives Teachers assessed Character and nature of evaluation Agencies with responsibility for teacher evaluation Frequency of evaluation The Enhanced Performance Management System (EPMS) Teaching Track (see Implementation Aspects below), is a competency-based system that aims to help teachers improve themselves and better their performance. EPMS encourages teachers to: self reflect on their capabilities and achievements; chart their own professional development; and encourage and reinforce behaviours and outcomes the Ministry of Education values. With the implementation of EPMS, teachers enjoy greater clarity in terms of expectations and behaviours as well as career progression. The EPMS also aligns learning and development opportunities with the new career and recognition structures introduced through EduPac. The EPMS was introduced for all teachers in 2005. (It was rolled out progressively, starting in 2003 with school management staff). It is a mandatory process for all teachers. Teacher evaluation is carried out at the school level and follows the guidelines of the EPMS as interpreted by school leaders. Teachers are assessed during the year by a school supervisor (this could be a principal, a vice-principal or head of department). Panels of supervisors, including Principal, VicePrincipal and Heads of Department) assess collectively a group of teachers. It is conducted on an annual basis. However, supervisors are encouraged to meet their teachers regularly, not just once a year, to review the work that has been done and discuss adjustments to priorities and targets. This regular work review process also enables supervisors to coach their teachers, and offer encouragement and support. Reference standards Aspects covered Criteria Instruments and information sources Student results The EPMS emphasises the need to look at both the what and how of performance. Following in-depth interviews, focus groups and questionnaires on a representative sample of schools across different levels The Ministry of Education has defined: Key results areas developed, in a role profiles document, capturing the what of performance. This document aims to define performance expectations clearer and to guide teachers and their appraisers in setting and reviewing short-term work targets in those key result areas. Competences The Teaching Track has predetermined competencies clustered to form a Teaching Competency Model. Competencies are underlying characteristics that drive outstanding performance. They are the personal attributes and behaviours that lead to longterm achievement and success. This model aims to capture the how of performance. The key result areas for the Teaching Track include: quality learning of students pastoral care and wellbeing of students co-curricular activities contribution to the school collaboration with parents professional development Examples of some of the competencies for the Teaching Track are: nurturing the whole child teaching creatively partnering parents working with others While the accomplishment of work targets is key in the assessment of a teachers performance, it is equally important to recognise the desired behaviours which are demonstrated by the teacher in the course of his work. Teachers are appraised for performance and potential. Performance is assessed based on the teachers total contributions. This encompasses how well he has achieved his work targets (i.e. teaching duties, co-curricula activities, other duties, projects and tasks done during the year) and demonstrated the required competencies. Potential assessment is based on the competencies demonstrated by the jobholder (i.e. a teacher), Reporting officers assess the career track that the jobholder shows the greatest aptitude for and the highest appointment the jobholder is capable of handling on that career track. The EPMS Competencies are categorised according to degrees of competence, described as Levels. Level 1 provides for the basic competence requirements, while Level 5 caters for the most advanced. Review meetings, goals settings and formal feedback Each Teacher has three Work Review meetings per year with their supervisor/school principal at the beginning (January), middle (June) and the end (October) of the Performance Management cycle. The first meeting establishes targets, expected results, competencies and professional development needs. The second focuses on formal performance coaching, where the teacher is offered developmental feedback on work progress and performance. The third evaluates the performance and potential of the jobholder. Informal feedback. Informal performance coaching through the year is also expected. Tool to assess estimated potential (CEP). For potential assessment, the concept of Currently Estimated Potential (CEP) is used. This is an estimation of the highest appointment or level of work a teacher can handle competently before his retirement. The concept of CEP helps organisations to: estimate how far an teacher can go in the long run; identify and plan the teachers training and development possibilities; plan the teachers career advancement opportunities in terms of postings and assignments; and better plan for succession taking into consideration the calibre of people in the organisation. m EXAMPLES OF COUNTRY PRACTICES -37 37 m: missing Sources: DET (Department of Education- Government of Western Australia) (2006), Singapore Education System and School Accountability Research Papers, Evaluation and Accountability Directorate, DET, East Perth (www.det.wa.edu.au/education/accountability/Docs/SINGAPORE.pdf). Accessed 25 Nov. 2009; DEST (Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations Australia Government) (2007), Performance-based Rewards for Teachers. DEST Research Paper. Survey and Workforce Analysis Section. Skills Analysis and Quality Systems Branch, DEST, Canberra. www.dest.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/19D519D4-F4EE-4B86- 8B6E-1E9531AE4F87/16285/DESTPerformancebasedrewardsforteachersAPRIL.pdf Accessed 25 Nov. 2009; Khim Ong, K. et al. (2008) Teacher Appraisal and Its Outcomes in Singapore Primary Schools. Journal of Educational Administration p39-54 www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewPDF.jsp?contentType=Article&Filename=html/Output/Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/0740460103.pdf Ministry of Education (2006), Singapore Staff Appaisal (Education Serivce), MOE, Singapore. www.uspalestinianpartnership.com/sites/default/files/content/docs/education%20and%20society%20program/ED_SINGAPORESTAFFAPPRAISAL.pdf Accessed 26 Nov. 2009 SINGAPORE Enhanced Performance Management System (EPMS) Teaching Track (continued) Grading/rating Evaluators Skill development for evaluation Performance assessment is given in terms of A, B, C, D or E ratings. This is done comparing colleagues at similar substantive grade, since a teacher at a higher grade will most likely perform better than a teacher at a lower grade due to more knowledge and experience. To be fair to all teachers, performance is therefore assessed relative to a teachers substantive grade. This means that for a teacher at a higher grade, he will be measured against the higher performance standard expected of that grade. Ranking is a critical part of appraisal. While supervisors individually assess the potential and performance of their teachers, there are bound to be some supervisors are more stringent than others. To complement their individual assessments, ranking panels are convened annually to collectively assess groups of teachers. Ranking helps to: moderate differences in the standards of various supervisors impose discipline in the appraisal system ensure that assessments are rigorous and fair. The ranking process ends with the panel deciding on the CEP or performance grading band each teacher should belong to. The assessment is made by a panel of supervisors including the Principal, VicePrincipal and Head of Departments, and not just by one supervisor in the school. New teachers through EPMS workshops to help them better use and understand the tool. Consequences (improvement) Consequences (accountability) Responses to ineffective teachers M The award of an individual or collective performance bonus/prize. The annual Performance Bonus (PB) is linked to the ranking, with outstanding classroom teachers eligible to earn up to two months performance bonus. The PB is paid in March each year for the work done in the previous year. The Ministry of Education has announced provisions of $3,000 per school for an Outstanding Contribution Award. The school-based award considers all employees eligible for the $2,000 team award and $1,000 individual award. m Articulation between school and teacher evaluation M Implementation aspects The EMPS creation was part of the initiatives of the new package announced in 2001 by the Ministry for Education to reshape teaching as a career. The Edu-Pac (Education Service Professional Development and Career Plan) offered a range of initiatives to transform the careers of education teachers and help retain good and highly committed teachers. EduPac offered three main components: a new career structure, a new recognition structure and enhancements to the performance management system. The EPMS was developed after extensive consultation with teachers at all levels, phased in gradually from 2003 first to school leaders, then to Heads of Departments and other key appointment holders, and finally school-wide to all teachers in 2005. The career structure provides Education Teachers with three tracks: A Teaching Track, catering to the majority of teachers in the Education Service. This track provides improved professional development and advancement opportunities for excellent teachers. The peak appointment on the Teaching Track is Master Teacher, appointed from amongst Senior Teachers. Master Teachers continue to teach and help develop teaching excellence through mentoring, developing good teaching practice and model lessons. Master Teachers earn the equivalent to a senior Head of Department. Teachers on the Teaching Track have opportunities to advance professionally through advanced diploma and higher degree programs and other forms of professional development. Teachers moving up to the higher levels are required to meet thresholds in terms of skills and knowledge and have to demonstrate the necessary competencies and performance for the higher job level. A Leadership Track is provided for those choosing leadership positions in schools and the Ministry. Ed-PAC introduces a new job grade, allowing those Heads of Department with heavier responsibilities to be promoted to a higher level. Special allowances and increased responsibility allowances are also available. A Senior Specialist Track is offered to develop a strong group of teachers in the Ministry with deep knowledge and skills in specific areas to innovate, break new ground and keep us at the leading edge in educational developments. Four areas of specialisation are identified: Curriculum and Instructional Design; Educational Psychology and Guidance, Educational Testing and Measurement, and Research and Statistics.
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