Appendix DBicycle Work BreakdownStructure (WBS) ExampleD.1 OverviewIn Chapter 3, Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) use-related characteristics weredescribed. These are WBS characteristics that vary from one project to another so thatthe WBS better satisfies the requirements of a specific project, industry or environment.Consistent with this principle, a WBS can be represented in a variety of ways inorder to achieve a specific purpose in a specific situation. A single WBS may also berepresented in more than one way in various situations on a given project. Thisappendix illustrates a number of formats that are found in common practice today.All of these representations, as well as others not included here, may be used to detailthe scope of a specific project. To allow the reader to focus on the differences amongthe various representations, a single WBS will be used to illustrate each format.To help simplify the comparison of these WBS formats, we have chosen the bicycleproject example described in the text of the practice standard.D.2 Outline ViewA very common representation of the WBS is the Outline View in which each level ofthe WBS is shown by the level of indentation and is accompanied by an alphanumericoutline code, or numbering scheme. Outline views are readily developed using anumber of common tools, including word processors and spreadsheets1 Bicycle1.1 Frame Set1.1.1 Frame1.1.2 Handlebar1.1.3 Fork1.1.4 Seat1.2 Crank Set1.3 Wheels1.3.1 Front Wheel1.3.2 Rear Wheel1.4 Braking System2006 Project Management Institute 51521.5 Shifting System1.6 Integration1.6.1 Concept1.6.2 Design1.6.3 Assembly1.6.4 Testing18.104.22.168 Component Test22.214.171.124 Product Test126.96.36.199 Customer Test1.7 Project ManagementFor some purposes, the outline view might not use indentation, but simply show the hierarchical structure through the numbering scheme: WBSCode Level Element Name1 1 Bicycle WBS2 1.1 Frame Set3 1.1.1 Frame3 1.1.2 Handlebar3 1.1.3 Fork3 1.1.4 Seat2 1.2 Crank Set2 1.3 Wheels3 1.3.1 Front Wheel3 1.3.2 Rear Wheel2 1.4 Braking System2 1.5 Shifting System2 1.6 Integration3 1.6.1 Concept3 1.6.2 Design3 1.6.3 Assembly3 1.6.4 Testing4 188.8.131.52 Component Test4 184.108.40.206 Product Test4 220.127.116.11 Customer Test2 1.7 Project Management Table D-1. Hierarchical StructureEliminating indentation may make the WBS less intuitive for the reader, but may savespace in certain documents.D.3 Tabular ViewAnother common representation of a WBS is the Tabular View in which the hierarchicalstructure is represented through columns in a table. Tabular views are common in2006 Project Management Institutesituations where it may be difficult to use a more graphical format, such as textdocument with limited formatting capability. Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 41 Bicycle WBS1.1 Frame Set1.1.1 Frame1.1.2 Handlebar1.1.3 Fork1.1.4 Seat1.2 Crank Set1.3 Wheels1.3.1 Front Wheel1.3.2 Rear Wheel1.4 Braking System1.5 Shifting System1.6 Integration1.6.1 Concept1.6.2 Design1.6.3 Assembly1.6.4 Testing18.104.22.168 Component Test22.214.171.124 Product Test126.96.36.199 Customer Test1.7 Project Management Table D-2. Tabular View 1A different type of tabular structure is sometimes encountered in government publications. Such displays often include additional information such as cost accountingcodes, organizational elements responsible for the WBS element, etc. It may be difficultto display more than a few levels of a WBS using this format. Bicycle WBS 11.1 Frame Set1.1.1 Frame 1.1.3 Fork1.1.2 Handlebar 1.1.4 Seat1.2 Crank Set1.3 Wheels1.3.1 Front Wheel1.3.2 Rear Wheel1.4 Braking System1.5 Shifting System1.6 Integration1.6.1 Concept 1.6.2 Design 1.6.3 Assembly1.6.4 Testing188.8.131.52 Component Test184.108.40.206 Product Test220.127.116.11 Customer Test1.7 Project Management Table D-3. Tabular View 22006 Project Management Institute 5354D.4 Tree Structure ViewOne of the most common ways to represent a WBS is the graphic Tree Structure, orOrganizational Chart structure in which each child element is shown as a boxwith a line connecting it to the parent element of which it is a component. Thisrepresentation makes very explicit the way in which the project and the subordinatecomponents are hierarchically decomposed into smaller and smaller elements. Themost common version of the tree structure places the project at the top level withsuccessive levels of decomposition below.Figure D-1. WBS Tree Structure View 12006 Project Management InstituteAlternatively, the orientation of the WBS Tree Structure view may be modified. Inthese cases, the project may be placed on the left with lower levels of decompositionmoving to the right. For some purposes a landscape orientation may be useful. Beloware two similar examples of this.Figure D-2. WBS Tree Structure View 22006 Project Management Institute 5556Figure D-3. WBS Tree Structure View 32006 Project Management InstituteOr in other cases, a horizontal portrait orientation may be more useful.Figure D-4. WBS Horizontal Tree Structure View2006 Project Management Institute 5758An increasingly popular format is the Centralized Tree Structure. This type of formatis produced by software that is used for facilitating development of the WBS throughreal time group interactions. Below are two examples of the centralized tree structure WBS.Figure D-5. WBS Centralized Tree Structure View 12006 Project Management InstituteFigure D-6. WBS Centralized Tree Structure View 22006 Project Management Institute 5960D.5 Enhanced Uses of the WBSBy including information in the WBS in addition to the core WBS Element Name andWBS Code, the WBS can become the explicit means for integrating other projectmanagement processes with scope.One example of such enhanced use is the WBS Dictionary which adds a detaileddefinition of each WBS Element. The WBS Dictionary may also include key cost controland resource assignment information, as in the following example. Note that the costcontrol number column is left blank, which can be a placeholder for the informationonce it is made available when the order is taken. CostControl Number WBS Code Element Name ResponsibleOrganizationLevel Definition 1 1 Bicycle WBS All components and subassemblies required to specify design, assembly and testing of a custom bicycle.Customer Sales andSupport2 1.1 Frame Set The individual components that together constitute the frame once assembledCustomer Sales andSupport3 1.1.1 Frame The unit tubular steel structure to which other components are attached. Provides basic design and strength.Customer Sales andSupport3 1.1.2 Handlebar Used by rider to steer bicycle. Also serves as point of attachment for hand brakes, lights, and otheraccessories. Style to be selected bycustomer.Customer Sales andSupport3 1.1.3 Fork Attaches wheel(s) to frame. Must be selected to match frame. Customer Sales andSupport3 1.1.4 Seat Padded saddle attached to frame for rider to sit on. Style to be selected by customer.Customer Sales andSupport2 1.2 Crank Set Mechanical linkage for converting riders pedaling action into rotation of rear wheel to provide propulsion.Part selection is determined bycustomers performancespecifications and compatibility withother mechanical components.Customer Sales andSupport2 1.3 Wheels Interface with ground. Customer may select among several options with respect to materials, weight, andaerodynamic styling.Customer Sales andSupport3 1.3.1 Front Wheel Front wheel is specialized for steering through attachment of handlebars. Customer Sales andSupport3 1.3.2 Rear Wheel Rear wheel is specialized for propulsion. Customer Sales andSupport2 1.4 Braking System Mechanical system for converting hand pressure into friction on the wheel rim to control speed.Customer Sales andSupport 2006 Project Management Institute CostControl Number WBS Code Element Name ResponsibleOrganizationLevel Definition 2 1.5 Shifting System Mechanical linkage system for changing position of chain on rear wheel sprocket to adjust leverage and gearratio to match riding conditions.Customer Sales andSupport2 1.6 Integration The complete design, assembly and testing of the bicycle. Customer Sales andSupport3 1.6.1 Concept High level vision of finished bicycle desired by customer. Usuallycommunicated to sales to serve as thebasis for the bicycle design.Customer3 1.6.2 Design The complete set of specifications that defines the finished bicycle. Developedby engineering department to satisfycustomers concept of the bicycle.Engineering Dept.3 1.6.3 Assembly The series of sub-assemblies that together result in creation of thefinished bicycle.Manufacturing Shop3 1.6.4 Testing The series of inspection and measurements performed to determine whether the individual components andfinished bicycle meet the designspecifications and customers vision ofthe finished bicycle appearance andperformance.Quality ControlOrganization4 18.104.22.168 Component Test The series of inspection and measurements performed to determine whether the individual componentsmeet the design specifications.Quality ControlOrganization4 22.214.171.124 Product Test The series of inspection and measurements performed to determine whether the sub-assemblies andfinished bicycle meet the designspecifications.Quality ControlOrganization4 126.96.36.199 Customer Test The series of inspection and measurements performed by thecustomer to determine if the finishedbicycle matches the expectations of thefinished bicycle appearance andperformance.Customer2 1.7 Project Management The skills and processes used to ensure that the bicycle is designed, built, and delivered in accordance withquality, cost, and schedule that wereagreed upon by the customer.Project ManagementOrganization Table D-4. WBS DictionaryThere may also be occasions when a WBS may contain less information than isstandard usage. For example, for communication of the WBS to a non-technical audience such as the customer or senior management, it may enhance the communicationif the code numbers that normally accompany the WBS elements are suppressed. Thisis acceptable because it addresses the needs of a specific situation.2006 Project Management Institute 6162Figure D-7. WBS DictionaryD.6 WBS Code NumbersIn the examples above, the WBS code uses a numbering scheme consisting of Arabicnumbers separated by periods. This allows for easy and systematic expansion of theWBS as additional elements are added. In other cases, the WBS code might use adifferent alphanumeric system, for example, a combination of Roman numerals, lettersand Arabic numbers. This particular system does not lend itself to systematic expansionas a purely numeric code. In some cases, the numbering scheme may be defined bythe organization in such away as to permit coordination across projects and enableprogram level cost control. The WBS Code serves as a unique identification number.I BicycleI.A Frame SetI.A.1 FrameI.A.2 HandlebarI.A.3 ForkI.A.4 SeatI.B Crank SetI.C WheelI.C.1 Front WheelI.C.2 Rear WheelI.D Braking SystemI.E Shifting SystemI.F Integration2006 Project Management InstituteI.F.1 ConceptI.F.2 DesignI.F.3 AssemblyI.F.4 TestingI.F.4.1 Component TestI.F.4.2 Product TestI.F.4.3 Customer TestI.G Project ManagementThe WBS examples in this appendix are illustrative only and are intended to provide guidance to thereader. No claim of completeness is made. All examples reflect the quality principles expressed in thisPractice Standard. As expressed in the PMBOK GuideThird Edition the project management team isresponsible for determining what is appropriate for any given project (Project Management Institute 2004).2006 Project Management Institute 63
Bicycle Work Breakdown Structure
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