Country Villa provides a variety of

The environmental sustainability of the Country Villa in Nepal Executive Summary Country Villa provides a variety of facilities and services to a local government. The services provided by the hotel involve to a local community, more than a group of 16 to 21 ages and different peoples. It has an impact on the environment by using in-house product and giving the employment opportunities to local community people which Is used in the hotel by seeking to reduce the initial cost of revenue throughout the development of sustainability development. The hotel is implementing a different technique to reducing the hotel product, protecting of waste materials, optimizing use of energy and materials used in hotel, and investing in communities cost of hotel. Moreover, there is a higher recognition and opportunities, which is interconnected through the nature to face the challenges with the hotel. It have a wider perspective to develop the path to a sustainable future, which it provided the vision for local community people for contributing the sustainable environment more efficiently. Contents 1.0 Introduction 6 2.0 Backgroud of select hotel 7 3.0 In-house poultry and Fish Farm9 3.1 Environmental..9 3.2 Economy.10 3.3 People.12 4.0 The concept of using bio- degradable plates and bowls made from Areca Nut leaves..13 4.1 Social..13 4.2 Economic Sustainability.14 4.3 Environmental.15 5.0 Education17 5.1 People.17 5.2 Environment Aspects..18 5.3 Economy.19 6.0 Conclusion22 References.24 Appendix.26 Table and figures Table 1 Price comparison between Plastic utensils and Bio degradable utensils..14 Table 2 ..17 Figure 1 Cost of Living in Kathmandu..21 Figure 2 Cost of living estimator in Kathmandu, Nepal21 Figure 3 Cost of living estimator in Kathmandu, Nepal24 Figure 4 Cost of living estimator in Kathmandu, Nepal24 Figure 5 Cost of living estimator in Kathmandu, Nepal24 1.0 Introduction Nowadays, the issue of sustainable development has been put forward by people. The emergence of the problem of environmentally sustainable development is the place where people have a value environment or the things that have difficulties or irreversible losses (Sutton, 2004, p. i). However, as long as there is such a risk, there will be urgent action. The hotel industry plays an essential role in the economic and social development and is of great significance to the world economy. However, in the course of the development of the hotel, in order to develop, some of the activities and services they hold will produce some environmental impacts that may lead to natural resources exhaustion and global warming. Awareness and social pressure have led the hotel to manage the environmental impact of their activities and to be accountable to the community. Social interest in sustainability has become a decisive factor in choosing a tourist business and a guarantee of comfort and hospitality (Oliveira, Tricarico, Varella, & Velasquez, 2016). This study mainly broadens the understanding of the sustainable development of the environment, and puts forward the following questions: how to map the sustainable environmental management of the hotel within the framework? Therefore, according to the framework put forward by the researchers, the overall goal of establishing this work is to map the theme environmental sustainability of hotels. The primary purpose of this article is to explore the development of environmentally sustainable development for the hotel industry through an analysis of a hotel called Country Villa in Nepal. Go through with Biodegradable plates and bowls made from Areca Nut leaves, In-house poultry and fish farming, and Education accurate analysis, more thorough description of a hotel if the focus on environmentally sustainable development issues, will have what kind of return they can. This reward includes the benefits of the economy and the sustainable development of humankind. And the Triple Bottom Line Theory also will be used in this report. 2.0 The background of the select hotel Country villa, the hotel which the research will analysis is strategically located onthe top of Nagarkot hill in Nepal, was established in 1996 with 8 rooms with 14 deluxe room were added in 2003 and it is only 28 kilometers away from the International airport and covers a wide area. Putting the hotel on the top of Nagarkot can provide visitors with a spectacular and unique view of captivating mountains, nature, wilderness and the unspoiled sceneries and landscapes. From Restaurant and rooms there is an amazing and stunning sunrise can been seen from there. It also explores a wonderful beautiful canvas Himalayans stretching Annapurna massif in the far west to the Mountain. Kanchanjunga in the far east mountains other than explore the country side. It can leave all the visitors here with romance and a good time so that they can enjoy a perfect holiday. However, the more important is, the hotel has widely used local products, promoted the employment of residents, and found the way to the kitchen for local herbs. At the same time, the hotel also provides some paintings and other cultural relics and other commodities, which are actually handpicked and made in Nepal. The hotel offers a lot of additional activities for travelers, such as adventurous stuffs to participate, cultural events, beauty of flora and fauna and visits to temples and villages that witness the history of the area. These activities are educational and tempting. Hotel provides a variety of food dishes as per the guest demand and Nepali Thali set is the mixture of Nepali food. Basically, hotel use a local and organic product because it is more nutritious and healthier. Country villa hotel provide an exceptional customer service to a guest. Hotels offer some job employment opportunities for local people and give them a training courses which is more useful in their upcoming life. The hotel is manly focused towards guest on providing a basic knowledge to sustainable environment. Nearby the hotel there are different historic monuments where guest can visit there, to know what thing had happen on an ancient period. Community visit for the guest how their livelihood, and to know many more thing from the community. In each week there is a community program where all of the guest are invited on that program, the guest can celebrate and enjoyed the program and to be more familiar with their religions. The hotel used the different technique and resources to make a sustainable environment. 3.0 In-house poultry and Fish Farm Incorporate Farming System is an asset administration procedure to accomplish financial and supported horticulture creation to meet various prerequisites of farm house-hold while maintaining higher environment quality and protecting the resource (Korikanthimath, 2007). The problem of Farming system appears to answer like: enhancing nutritious status, increasing net farm income, food production, manageable utilization of land and water and promoting natural resource management. (Chnnabasavanna and Biradar, 2007) Coordination of chicken with Fish cultivating may be a financially feasible and gainful framework for hotel business entrepreneurs. The surprising expense contributions to fish farming are not required in such frameworks and the cost of input is consequently reduced. The expenses related with clench hand culture operation are diminished by around 70% (Gupta, 1987) when coordinated with chicken, since angle cultivating reuses chicken wastages and dribbled chicken as food and compost for the fish. Poultry droppings are wealthy in nitrogen and natural material and henceforth, are viewed as significant as composts. 3.1 Environment: As far as carbon footprint and land utilize per kilo of item, the production of poultry and fish farming contrasted with other meat delivering species emits less carbon di-oxide. The absence of poultry and fish enteric fermentation are the most feasible meat regarding low estimation of greenhouse gas emission. The production of poultry and fish farming promote efficiently and sustainable. Compared with the other meat poultry and fish remain a prominent meat with the consumer and it has a low environmental effect. It is highly efficient system for increasing production which saves, labor , land, feed and other resource.(Steinfeld et al 2006) Evaluated carbon dioxide emanations by joining exchanged volumes with separate separations, vessel limits and speeds, fuel utilization of primary and helper control generators for refrigeration, and their particular discharge factors. The expansion of transportation inside national limits, including shorter separations, however substantially bigger amounts and less productive vehicles, would unquestionably increment altogether the parts ozone depleting substance emanations identified with transportation (Barcelo, D. 2003). This ozone depleting substance is delivered by the consuming of non-renewable energy sources amid the fabricate of fertilizer. In general, serious poultry creation (by implication and straightforwardly) contributes an expected 3 percent of the aggregate anthropogenic ozone harming substance and is in charge of around 2 percent of the aggregate ozone depleting substance emissions from the domesticated animals part (Cabello, F. C. 2006). This gauge anyway does exclude emanations from land-living applied and land living applied change related with feed generation or discharges identified with transport of feed. 3.2 Economy: Poultry and fish are remarkably versatile where they run with everything veggies, berries, grains nuts even different creatures. Meat or egg and fish doesnt make an incredible item, there is a various way they add to the farm ecosystem. It helps to transform long term economic investment into a wide array of marketable products in affordable point (Edwards, 1988). They contribute to a vibrant farm economy because of their social and environmental benefits. The waste material of chicken can be used for the green leafy vegetable. It is best home remedies fertilizer for the plant nutrient to grow in soil and it is far better than in-organic fertilizer (Grandin, 2015). It also saves the cost for buying the chemical fertilizer from the market where it also saves the transportation and it also save huge amount of money for hotel. The green leafy vegetables which they had fertilize grown in the land can be used in hotel for the customer. Any farmer can grow a crop in short span of time. The wastage of Fish like: (lungs, kidney and fins waste material) can be eaten by the chicken which makes them healthier and it also save the wastage of food given to chicken. It also Save the purchasing cost. This system can survive and thrive indefinitely, without costly, addictive data source and harmful which the soil nutrients they replenish. To keep the system healthy poultry and fish farming help preclude those damaging decision. All aspects of the system allow to discover and expand on the practices committing to a triple bottom line of ecological, economic and social resilience (Little, D., & Edwards, P. 2003). In house farmers make better; strong soil brings financial resilience and happier chicken are healthier chicken. It also produces high economic returns from recycling farm wastes. Chicken and fish improve the economic efficiency of breeding staff. India and china have a good market on their countries. So, poultry and fish farming should have flourished in own country which dont need to import these products and its benefit the countrys economy (Zhang, L. X., Ulgiati, S.,2011). 3.3 People: (Sonaiya et al 1999), says that, in African communities it is used for traditional human medicine and to cure a sick person. when the people is attacked by the intoxicated snake where chicken helps to save a life. However, it has that much capacity to suck the toxic disease (Dessie T. and Ogle B 2001). It provides nutritious and fresh meat as compared for buying from market. Poultry and fish products can afford by most of the people because its not much expensive. (Alam, M. R., Ali, 2009) Farming poultry and fish on same Ponds can save a time and it doesnt require lots of staff to take care. When growing the locally chicken and fish may also increase the level of consumer can feel that they are getting a healthier meat in a low budget. It also attracts the more people to visit the hotel as well as to look the view of farming industry. They can provide a one-to-two weeks training of women farmer organization and villager leadership for aspiring poultry and fish farming which will be benefit for the upcoming rural areas. These program helps to sale the chicken and fish which develop the value chain for veterinary suppliers (Larsen, J., & Roney, 2013). It improves poultry and fish production which have a positive impact at the farm or household. Poultry and fish farming increase production significantly and It also improve the living standard of people. People used to make pillows, fancy articles and curios from poultry feathers. Poultry and fish farming system also provide employment opportunities for a local people. By raising a poultry and fish farm unemployed educated youth can easily create a great income(Madsen, 2010). For this farming people can share their knowledge and experience for the guest who come to visit/stay there. There will be a positive impact for upcoming customer in hotel and farm industry. 4.0 The concept of using bio- degradable plates and bowls made from Areca Nut leaves Plastic being part of service, the reduction of its consumption is challenging task for the hoteliers. The disposal of single- use plastic products generates large quantity of waste every year. We all are aware of the fact that plastics in the ground takes long time to break down which has been hugely contributing towards deteriorating human health, environment along with biodiversity. Due to the disposal of such harmful product, the capacity of the landfill is diminishing[ CITATION Kad17 l 3081 ]. Like many hotels, we have found that Hotel County Villa has been using huge amount of plastic plates and bowls as part of serving meals in Cafeteria and mainly in the events. To overcome the issue, using bio degradable product such as plates and bowls made from Areca Nut Leaves is considered as one of the concept to improve the sustainability in Country Villa Hotel which can be recycled and are compostable. In Nepal, such products have been basically used in the community feasts and different form of rituals (spiritual celebration of an event). This tradition has influenced to make the transitioning from the use of plastic utensils to bio degradable products. 4.1 Social: Socially, the idea of using the bio degradable utensil makes a huge impact in the environment. The bio- degradable plates and bowls will be sourced from the locals mainly women who have been engaging in making these minor products from Sal trees, Bamboo sticks. After ensuring the quality of the final product, the hotel is planning to order the amount of 10,000 pieces in the first lot. If the responses from customer as well as the hotels personal are positive, then the hotel will be gradually increase its supply. This will act as a source of supplementary income for the people who are in need especially the women belonging to the poor community will get motivated to earn money which would greatly help them in upgrading their economic status. Rather than being exploited by the traders and having to sell their products in lower prices, they can start their own business staying at home without depending on any individual. Ultimately, it will generate employment opportunities for the people who were unaware of the importance of the leaves and the equity that would fetch them. Moreover, it makes people aware about the environmental impact by the use of such utensils which would gradually motivate the people around the surroundings to involve in manufacturing similar products and spreading the business that would bring sustainability in the environment. 4.2 Economic Sustainability: The main factor that affects the commercial feasibility is the cost of a product. Description Material Price(AUD) Pieces 10 Plate Plastic $5,000 10,000(1 pc = $0.50) 5 Bowl Plastic $3,000 10,000 (1 pc= $0.30) 10 Plate Areca Nut Leaves $1,100 10,000(1 pc = $0.11) 5 Bowl Areca Nut Leaves $500 10,000 (1pc = $0.05) Table 1: Price comparison between Plastic utensils and Bio degradable utensils To clarify the economics of the plastic and biodegradable product, the prices were analyzed. The prices marked are the current price according to market price of Nepal which has been converted in Australian dollar. From the aforementioned details in the table, we can rectify that the purchase of the biodegradable products is cheaper as compared to the purchase of the plastic products which acts as a very feasible option for an investment. Aside from the cost of purchase, the use of biodegradable products eliminates the cost of disposal which has been increasing due to the diminishing landfills. Also, the use of plastic utensils either require purchasing the dishwashers or employing the labor to handle the dishwashing department. So, if the plastic utensils no longer remain an option for the hotels to use, the bio- degradable plates and bowls would make huge financial contribution. The savings can be invested in other areas of development. 4.3 Environmental To analyze the environmental impacts of switching from plastic products to the use of bio degradable utensils, the complete life cycle of the materials used in the process needs to be measured. According to the news report, there are more than 3.6 million Areca Nut trees in places like Jhapa, Morang and Sunsari. Each tree sheds eight to nine leaves naturally per year which means approximately 28.8 to 32.4 million leaves are wasted annually. Therefore, the Arena nut leaves needed to manufacture the bio- degradable plates and bowls will be sourced from these leaves which will not cause any depletion of the forest resources as the trees grow in the abundance both in summer as well as winter season [ CITATION The17 l 3081 ]. Moreover, the main impact of using biodegradable products to the environment is to reduce the disposal of waste in the landfills. It does not need any selective sites for decomposition as it can be composted in regular landfills. They properly degrade within 6 12 months time, not like plastics which takes several years of time due to their complex intermolecular bonds. Also, it is not like metal utensils which do not compost and needs to be recycled or used indefinite time. However, small amount of them does end up in the landfill due to accidental or careless disposals[ CITATION Tre10 l 3081 ]. The alternative use of utensils will also contribute in avoiding cleaning after use, which directly reduces the amount of water needed and cleaning product (involves chemicals affecting the environment). Also, due the use of natural products during the manufacture does not harm human body since there is no exposure of any chemicals. Moreover, the used bio- degradable plates and bowls can be donated to the farmers who can use it as a compost that helps in fertilizing the soil. These makes the further use of the waste for the farmers and acts as an alternative way of disposing the waste. Hence, the concept of using the bio- degradable plates and bowls made from Areca Nut leaves would make a huge contribution in waste prevention which will directly help in environment sustainability. 5.0 Education 5.1 People Education plays a vital role for the local people. Country villa hotel have a great opportunity for selecting the right people between 16 to 21 aged group. All of the candidate are been selected from the reference from their parents They also provide effective and quality training program for improvement of their potential ability on an equal basis with others (Rights, 2015). They are taking care of their parents elder/ younger brother sisters and giving them a better education. Basically, country villa hotel provides employment opportunities for 10 boys and 10 girls to work in different department. Front office Food and beverage Kitchen Housekeeping 2 Girls / 1 Boy 3 Girls / 3 Boys 3 Girls / 3 Boys 2 Girls / 3 Boys Table 2 After being employed for certain year in country villa they had better skills and experience which will be beneficial for them to compete in the future with others. It help them to share their knowledge with a local people and encourage them to participate in country villa for next time. People are getting a job instead they are also getting education. (James and Bexley, 2015) Its give an idea for local communitys people that they have to be well educated which will be benefit to a village for development. The new people will start to visit constantly in a country villa hotel which, they are providing the better customer expectation to guest. However, it will also leads to generate the revenue. The local people will be able to describe about the hotel whereas, it will helpful for hotel and for local community which, they can involve on different sector of community (Lohman, 2010). People getting education have a power to influence the people to choose and create more inclusive and sustainable communities. (Rink, J. E., 1993) Once in a year, hotel conduct a program where the local people should have participated and they are being keen to know about the business and how we can attract a more customer on our community. Its also beneficial for them to interact with guest and learn many things. Getting lots of opportunities and constraints, people make a decision to live their live, planning their own biographies in future (Erel, 2015) The quality education for people has not just for peace but also for inclusive and sustainable economic growth that leaves no one behind and will ultimately guide us towards a safer greener environment. 5.2 Environment Aspects: During the period of vocational training, the hotel will be organizing an accommodation for the locals so that they can live and work as part of their training course. It is a sustainable approach to reduce the transportation operation that takes place when the local visits the hotel every day for the training. This ultimately helps in limiting the emission of Carbon Dioxide caused by the use of fossil fuels during transportation since, vehicles are responsible for more than 4.6 metric tons of Carbon dioxide and other gases per year which is considered as the main greenhouse gas. Carbon dioxide acts as a major contributor causing damage in the environment and peoples health. It is mainly causing air pollution with the release of carbon dioxide when the fossil fuels are burned. This directly affects the global warming becoming the main factor for the climate change. Using fossil fuel in a conservative manner would help in reduction of the volume of hazardous chemicals in the atmosphere[ CITATION Tei16 l 3081 ]. Therefore, when the transportation is less operational, fewer emissions are generated which would contribute in slowing down the global warming and cause less damage to peoples health. Moreover, if the locals choose to stay in accommodation arranged by the hotel itself, then transportation will be completely omitted. It will help in minimizing the consumption of non- renewable resources i.e. fuels, which is mainly used to operate the vehicles for transporting the locals to their destination. Less use of vehicles means less amount of fossil fuels used which directly helps in conserving the renewable resources for future use. Hence, it is acknowledged that though less use of transportation does not make a huge impact in environment, but it is obviously an initiation to conserve the environment along with benefitting the locals through vocation training. It allows the locals to gain education for their growth in safe manner contributing the environment indirectly. 5.3 Economy The economic and educational backwardness of Nepal was caused by the violent civil war in Nepal from 1996 to 2006 due to the Zedong Mao rebellion (Valente, 2014). According to the NUMBEO (2018) about the cost of living in Nepal report showed that the average data for all cities cost of living in Nepal is 60.32% lower than living in Australia, and the rent part in Nepal is 88.36% lower than in Australia. They need to take a new road to developing their economy and education. According to the Distribution of expenses using our statistical model as below (Figure 1), which showed the essential part in the living, which includes Transportation, Clothing and shoes, Markets, and Utilities (Monthly) and so on, the percentage in Kathmandu. Figure 1. Cost of Living in Kathmandu (NUMBEO, 2018) According to the NUMBEOs Estimator, the detail information for the essential living cost for one student in Kathmandu as below figures: Figure 2. Cost of living estimator in Kathmandu, Nepal (NUMBEO, 2018) Figure 3. Cost of living estimator in Kathmandu, Nepal (NUMBEO, 2018) Figure 4. Cost of living estimator in Kathmandu, Nepal (NUMBEO, 2018) Figure 5. Cost of living estimator in Kathmandu, Nepal (NUMBEO, 2018) From the data of above figures, the total cost for one student would be $300 Australia dallor per month, so that means, if the hotel support one student in six months, the total cost of living would be $1800 Australia dallor. If a hotel can establish a perfect training system, it can also reduce the pollution of the environment while improving the quality of the students and bringing economic benefits to the hotel, and it is also can make environmental sustainability. According to researching, there is a course called Half-day Nepali Cooking Class in Nepal, which is specially prepared for hotel visitors (Tripadvisor Australia, n.d.). This course included using the bus to drive the tourists to the local family, and then, the housewives will teach them to do Nepali. The price of this course cheapest price is from 33.60 Australian dollars per half-day per person, and the highest is from 144.54 Australian dollars per half-day per person. If a hotel can offer a course of cooking, they also can be embedded this concept in the hotels learning class while providing benefits for employees (teach their children to learn the related skills). The owner of the hotel can go according to the local style to build a staff dormitory in the vicinity of the hotel where only walk for about 10 minutes. The staff of the hotel can live there with their family. In this way, when the hotel visitors join the residents to learn the cooking courses, they do not have to take the means of transportation, they can be walking to the families while enjoying the beautiful scenery, it also contributes to the sustainable development of the environment. Similarly, when the staffs residence is close to the hotel, it can also contribute to the sustainable development of the environment at the same time of saving transportation costs. In this way, the pollution of the environment can be significantly reduced. The hotel offers accommodation and education for the children of the staff, and it can reduce the number of traffic to protects the environment. For the hotel, although they bear the cost of living for each student for six months, but, during this process, the hotel taught them the skill that how to make money. When they finished the course study, they can continue to work in the hotel, so that the economy of the hotel is also sustainable. The development of education courses in hotels, the prospect is bright for both the hotel and the environment. 6.0 Conclusion Poultry and fish farming system can produce enough natural fish feed organisms from direct deposit of fresh chicken fertilizers to fish lakes, along these lines expanding benefit and decrease generation and feed cost. Higher creation of creature protein can be accomplished from a similar region of leased land with this framework. These systems also produce in higher quantity of nutrient rich and collectable waste from the poultry production system and fish Farming. In order to overcome the problem of the large use of plastic plates such as plastic plates, Nepal believes that biodegradable products such as plates and bowls made of areca leaves are an idea to improve the sustainability of rural villas because they can be recycled and composted. The benefits of biodegradable products, its advantages are reflected not only in the sustainable development of the environment but also in the economy and society. A good education will benefit the development of a village. While providing better service for guests, it can also lead to an increase in hotel revenue. From a social perspective, the quality of people who receive the education will be improved, and the society will have a good impact. Considering the environmental protection from the hotel, hotels provide convenient accommodation for the convenience of education, but also reduce carbon dioxide emissions and protect the environment. Economically speaking, hotels offer courses such as cooking. From tourism, it is an increased income for hotels while preserving the environment. After training for local children, they can continue to stay in the hotel and contribute to the future development of the hotel. References Chnnabasavanna AS, Biradar DP. 2007 Relative performance of different rice-fish- poultry integrated farming system models with respect to system productivity and economics. Karnataka J Agric Sci., 20(4) : 706-709. Dessie T. and Ogle B (2001) Village poultry production systems in the Central Highlands of Nepal. Tropical Animal Health and Production 33: 521-537 Erel, U. (2015) Thinking Migrant Capitals Interjectionally: Using a Biographical Approach, in Ryan, L., Erel, U. & DAngelo, A. (eds) Migrant Capital. Networks, Identities and Strategies (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan). Gupta, M. V. (1987). Prospect of integrated fish farming in Bangladesh.Trainers Training Manual on Integrated Fish Farming. Mymensingh, Bangladesh, 7-9. James, R., Bexley, E., Anderson, A., Devlin, M., Garnett, R., Marginson, S., & Maxwell, L. (2008).Participation and equity: A review of the participation in higher education of people from low socioeconomic backgrounds and Indigenous people (Doctoral dissertation, University of Melbourne. Centre for the Study of Higher Education). Korikanthimath VS, Manjunath BL. 2009. Integrated farming systems for sustainability in agricultural production. Indian J Agron.;54(2):140-148. NUMBEO. (2018). Cost of living in Kathmandu [Image]. Retrieved from https://www.numbeo.com/cost-of-living/in/Kathmandu?displayCurrency=AUD Oliveira, J.P., Tricrico, L.T., Varella, B.G., & Velasquez, G.G. (2016). Arquitetura hoteleira sob a tica da sustentabilidade e da hospitalidade do espao: um estudo sobre a aplicao dos conceitos de sustentabilidade e hospitalidade do espao em projetos de hotis [Verso eletrnica]. In Rosa, F. S., & Silva, L.C. (2016). Environmental sustainability in hotels, theoretical and methodological contribution. Brazilian Journal of Tourism Research,11(1), p. 39-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.7784/rbtur.v11i1.1161 Rights, C.O.T.D.P. (2015). United Nations Organization. Rink, J. E. (1993). Teaching physical education for learning. Ruini LF, Ciati R, Pratesi CA, Marino M, Principato L and Vannuzzi E (2015) Working toward healthy and sustainable diets: the Double Pyramid Model developed by the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition to raise awareness about the environmental and nutritional impact of foods. Front. Nutr. 2:9. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2015.00009 Sonaiya, E.B., R.D.S. Branckaert, and E.F. Gueye. 1999. Research and Development options for family poultry. Introductory paper to the First INPD/FAO Electronic Conf. on the Scope and Effect of Family Poultry Research and Development Sodhi, N. S., Lee, T. M., Sekercioglu, C. H., Webb, E. L., Prawiradilaga, D. M., Lohman, D. J., & Ehrlich, P. R. (2010). Local people value environmental services provided by forested parks.Biodiversity and Conservation,19(4), 1175-1188. Sutton, P. (2004). A perspective on environmental sustainability? A paper for the Victorian commissioner for environmental sustainability. Director-Strategy of Green Innovations. Teixeira, L., Pinheiro, J., Arruda, F., & Mendonca Brasil, A. (2016). Environmental benefits from CO2 reduction due to model replacement: a light rail vehicle case study in Brasilia City. Transportation Research Procedia, 122-126. TripAdvisor. (n.d.). Nepal cooking school. Retrieved from https://www.tripadvisor.com.au/Attraction_Review-g293890-d10002291-Reviews Nepal_Cooking_School- Kathmandu_Kathmandu_Valley_Bagmati_Zone_Central_Region.html Valente, C. (2014). Education and Civil Conflict in Nepal. World Bank Economic Review, 28(2), 354-383. Appendix

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