deals with Western culture after

deals with Western culture after World War II. Now that we have entered the twenty-first century and the new millennium, the events that happened after 1945 seem to fade but are still about of our history. This period also had some dramatic shifts in the art. The decades following World War II were rightly called The Atomic Age. Nuclear weapons can have long-term and little understood consequences for both nature and the individuals who might survive the first blast. Paintings since 1945 Art critic Barbara Rose wrote that the history of world art in the second half of twentieth century bore an unmistakable American stamp. With that historical judgment since the 1940s, the United States, actually New York, became the center of new impulses in art. Abstract Expressionism The term Abstract Expressionism alludes to two characteristics to artists work. It was devoid of recognizable content and it used color, line, and shape to express interior states of subjective aesthetic experience. o Jackson Pollock Leader of the Abstract Expressionist. He was born in 1912 and had his fist one-man show at Peggy Guggenheims gallery in 1943. He used sticks, small mops and sponges to apply paint in coarse, heavy gestures. Name Artists who emerged around the 1940s/1950s Photorealist is a group of painters who painted in a realistic manner. The paintings were less glossy, erotic and nude. Below are artists who emerged during the 1940s and 1950s and artists who painted photorealist paintings. o Helen Frankenthaler (Famous for The Bay) gained notoriety for her use of water coloring by thinning the consistency of her paints and washes. o Elizabeth Murray (Famous For Do the Dance) Abstract artist usually experimented with very large canvases and used firm control over her paintings. o Jasper Johns (Famous for Flag series) Art focused on objects taken from a secular world. Johns art focused primarily on objects used in everyday life by individuals. Examples of his paintings (toothbrushes, cans, brushes, etc.) o Robert Rauschenberg ( Famous For Monogram) Known as one of the Americas most influential artist. Attended Black Mountain College and was influenced by Composer John Cage who was famous for his work called Happening which consisted of (music, arts, dramas, and dance) o Andy Warhol ( Famous for Mick Jagger Painting) Notorious painter who painted garbage and trash. This type of art known as pop art. Warhol felt media and fads are what shaped todays culture. Later changed theme of art and geared towards videos, movies, and celebrities. o Frank Stella (Famous for Hyena Stomp Inspired by Jazz musician Jelly Roll Morton and the painting Katsuma. Very difficult to categorize. Used more formal elements and carefully used hard edges, primary colors, and precise measurements. o Alfred Leslie (Famous for Constance West Seated with Rifle) used technique known as chiaroscuro and paid homage to baroque masters. o Romare Bearden (Famous for Empress of the Blues) painting paid homage to traditional blues and African culture. o Faith Ringgold ( Tar Beach 2 ) used mixed media in painting to celebrate her heritage , family, story telling and her life. o Susan Rothenberg (Famous for two tone) life-sized image is reduced to show essentials elements of painting and meaning as well as mechanics. o Gerhard Richter (Famous for Clouds (Wolken) Artists claimed he believed in nothing and that his work formed from structures and ideas that surrounded him. Name Contemporary Sculpture Most contemporary sculpture utilized stainless steel or rolled steel, welding techniques, and cast bronze to sculpt. o David Smith (1906-1965), a one-time auto body assembler, produced simple elegant metal sculptures that reflected his not inconsiderable technical skills with metal as well as his refined sense of aesthetic balance. The Art Institute of Chicago has on display all nine of David Smiths collection, they are named as follows; Barons Moom,1958, Cubi VII, 1963, Portrait of My Initials, K.K.,1954, Tanktotem I, 1952, Beach Scene, 1949, Don Quixote, 1952, Study, 1949, Untitled, 1955. o Alexander Calder (1898-1976), used is training as a mechanical engineer to combine the weightiness of metal with the grace of movement. o Calders works are painted sheet wire, mobiles that respond to even the slightest currents of air. Most of his works are circus themed projects with instructions on how to construct them yourself. o Other contemporary sculptors expanded the notion of assembling disparate materials into an artistic whole. Louise Nevelson (1900-1988), used wood pieces, to assemble large scale structures that function as walls closing off space and containers to hold items that made up her compositions. o Joseph Cornell (1903-1972), constructed small boxes that he filled with inexpensive trinkets, maps, bottles, tops, stones, and other trivia. o George Segal ( 1924-2000) and Edward Kienholz (1927-1994), sculptural interest in assemblage was taken a step further, their works re-created entire tableaux into realistically sculptured figures are placed. Segal liked to cast human figures in plaster of Paris and then set them in particular but familiar settings. o Kienholz was far better prepared to invest his works with strong social comment. His sculpture, The Wait, refers to death, (the remember death) theme. o The other sculptors that deserve mention are Claes Oldenburg, and Henry Moore (1898-1986); Both of these artists monumentalized tradition of the Western culture deriving from Renaissance masters like Michelangelo and his love for the forms coming from early cultures of Africa, Mexico, and pre-Colombian Latin America. Name Architecture Frank Lloyd Wright was the most influential American architect of the 20th Century and a disciple of Louis Sullivan (1856-1924). Wright championed an architecture that produced buildings designed for their specific function with an eye focused on the natural environment in which the building was to be placed and with a sensitivity of what the building should say. He wanted an organic architecture- an architecture that grows out of its location rather than being superimposed on it. Wright designed private homes, college campuses, industrial buildings, and churches. o Pier Luigi Nervi (1891-1979) demonstrated the creative use of concrete in a series of buildings he designed with Annibale Vitellozi for the 1960 Olympic Games. o Eero Saarinen (1910-1961) showed in the TWA Flight Center at Kennedy International Airport in New York City that a building can become almost pure sculpture. o Le Corbusier- Influential French architect (1887-1965) born Charles Edouard Jeanneret-Gris , did not share Wrights enthusiasm for organic architecture. Le Corbusier saw architecture as a human achievement that should stand in counterpoint to the world of nature. One of his most important contributions to architecture in his series of LUnited Habitation in Marseille (1952) and Nantes. These complexes were attempts to make large housing units into livable modules that would not only provide living space but would also be sufficiently self-contained to incorporating shopping, recreation, and walking areas. o Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe and Walter Gropius came to this country in the late 1930s as refugees from Nazi Germany. Both of these men have been associated with the German School of Design, the Bauhaus. Name Music since 1945 Music has been changing since World War II. New elements were introduced. Music lovers would listen to composed music such as the Chopin waltz or Mahler symphony several times a day. o Structuralism is the principle of precise musical organization. o Electronic Music is music produced by a machine that produces sound waves. It is not produced my conventional musical instruments o Composers of electronic music had difficulty inventing structure for ranges of sound. Name Conclusion The Contemporary Contour in chapter 22 describes how paintings, sculptures, architecture and music changed since the 1940s. Elements of all sorts were introduced which changed how modern and contemporary things look and sound after World War II.

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