# Define descriptive statistics

Unit V Part III. Work Sheet & Take Home Quiz Due Date: Apr 17 Section 1: Review from weeks 11 13. 1. Define descriptive statistics (what are they and give an example): 2. List the properties of inferential statistics and give 2 examples of inferential statistical methods: 3. Complete the following sentence: Measurement is the assignment of numerals to objects ___________________________________________. 4. Define the following and give an example of each: Nominal Scales Ordinal Scales Interval Scales Ratio Scales 5. List and define the three measures of central tendency. 6. List and define the five most commonly used measures of dispersion. 7. Define probability: 8. Define sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and efficiency: 9. What is the Central Limit Theorem? 10. Complete the following sentence: The actual p-value of a statistical test is computed form the data and _______________________________________________ 11. What is a Type I Error? 12. What is a Type II Error? 13. List the six-step process for testing hypotheses 14. Develop an appropriate research question, the associated hypothesis for a theoretical (made up by you) study that could be addressed by the Independent t-Test, also list the variables and the level of planned measurement for the dependent variable and do a mock up of the write up of the results from this make believe study: 15. What are the most common research designs associated with the Independent t-Test and the Mann-Whitney U-Test? 16. What is the Mann-Whitney U-Test? What makes this test different from the Independent t Test? 17. Develop an appropriate research question, the associated hypothesis for a theoretical (made up by you) study that could be addressed by the Paired t Test, also list the variables and the level of planned measurement for the dependent variable and do a mock up of the write up of the results from this make believe study: 18. What are the most common research designs associated with the Paired t-Test and the Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Rank Test? 19. What is the Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed Rank Test? What makes this test different from the Paired t Test? 20. Compare and contrast Parametric and Nonparametric Tests discussing what are they, when do you use Parametric Tests and when do you use Nonparametric Tests? Give at least one example of a Parametric Test and at least one example of a Nonparametric Test. USE ONE OF THE ATRICE ATTACHED. 19. Critical Thinking Article Assessment for the One-Way ANOVA. Each student will address each of the questions below by using one of the following options for an ANOVA Study backdrop. These options are: 1. Article by Lee et al, 2. Article by Baird & Sands 3. Article by Wilson et al. 1. The aim of this study is: 2. The design of the study is: 3. What were the inclusion criteria for this study? 4. What were the exclusion criteria for the subjects? 5. What variables were measured and indicate the level of measurement of each? 6. What statistical analysis procedures were used for this study? 7. Step 1: State the Null and Alternative Hypotheses for this article: Ho : HA : 8. Step 2: Define the significance level (a-level), determine the degrees of freedom, and find the critical value. a. The a-level is: b. The total degrees of freedom are _____ 9. How many patients /subjects were screened ______. How many of the patients satisfied the criteria for inclusion ______. 10. Summarize the major findings of this study: 11. What is your over-all assessment of this research report? 20. Critical Thinking Article Assessment for the Kruskal-Wallis H-Test Note article by Shimizu et al, posted under Course Materials for wk 11 to address the following questions as they apply to this article. 1. The aim of this study is: 2. The design of the study is: 3. What were the inclusion criteria for this study? 4. What were the exclusion criteria for the subjects? 5. What variables were measured and indicate the level of measurement of each? 6. What statistical analysis procedures were used for this study? 7. Step 1: State the Null and Alternative Hypotheses for this article: Ho : HA : 8. Step 2: Define the significance level (a-level), determine the degrees of freedom, and find the critical value. a. The a-level is: b. The total degrees of freedom are _____ 9. How many patients were screened ______. How many of the patients satisfied the criteria for inclusion ______. 10. Summarize the major findings of this study: 11. What is your over-all assessment of this research report? Section 3: Chapter 8: Differences Among Group Means: N-Way ANOVA and MANOVA Section 5: SPSS Exercises Throughout most of the chapters in the text (Kellar & Kelvin) there are step-by-step screen-shots about the use of SPSS. Additionally Appendix A (Kellar & Kelvin pages 507 514) also gives important information and instructions about the basic use of SPSS. If you have difficulties with this section please set up a phone conference with the course instructor (K. Dunemn) as soon as possible. The One-Way ANOVA in SPSS For each of the two exercises, state the most likely hypothesis and compute a one-way ANOVA and also a Kruskal-Wallis H-Test to determine whether a statistically significant difference exists between the groups in question. Use an a-level of .05. Do a Bonferroni post hoc test to determine which of the means are significantly different from each other. Determine statistical significance and state a conclusion (for each problem a conclusion for the one-way ANOVA and a conclusion for the Kruskal-Wallis H-Test. Note that these exercises may not meet all the assumptions to use the one-way ANOVA, but they are included here to start you off with problems that are easy to compute. Include all SPSS print outs of results to include the ANOVA Tables. 1. A high school teacher wants to compare the differences in the math test scores on a given test among her three classes. The test scores (number correct) of the three classes are shown in the following table: Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 100 76 98 94 90 92 88 95 86 82 84 80 86 80 84 Repeat the above problem using the Kruskal-Wallis H-test in SPSS 2. An OB nurse wants to know if primigravida patients have quicker first stage of labors during the new moon, half moon or the full moon timeframes. In the following exercise compare the differences in the length of the first stage of labor (in hours) among the three groups. New Moon Half Moon Full Moon 26 22 19 32 28 25 34 30 27 30 26 23 38 34 31 28 24 21 36 32 29 24 20 17 31 27 24 Repeat the above problem using the Kruskal-Wallis H-test in SPSS