ET7727 Critical Approaches of Inclusive Education Student ID : 2008324 Gazal Arora University Of East London Assignment 1 Consider the development of inclusive education through national policy , international treaties and theoretical perspective , and consider how far the SEND Code of Practice represents a shift in priorities for the education of children and youth people with SEND . Has the shift been towards or away . from the idea of full inclusion for all children , in a system of education supposedly based on the social model of disability ? Aims and Main ideas essay : Many children throughout the world needs special education and The goal of my assignment is to give brief meaning of inclusion with the critical evaluation of definition and discussion by comparing with different writer who wrote about inclusion . Inclusion refers to a cultural and environment feel of belonging. It can be assessed as the extent to which employees are valued , respected , accepted and encouraged to fully participate in organization. (GALLUP , September 2018) . Moreover , this essay will also explain about the social model of inclusion and what are the barriers faced by students with special needs . this topic will also describe about the kinds of policies given by government for inclusive education and what Salamanca Statement states about the special educational needs and how Warnocks 1978 report is considered to be so important in the history of inclusive education. Under this discussion the topic will also illustrate about the national and international policies constructed for the children with special needs . Hence , whole topic will provide a clear knowledge on inclusive education and kinds of actions or measures taken by society and government. Meaning of inclusion : Inclusion is an educational practice whereby students with special needs are fully integrated into the general education classrooms at a school.(INFORMED , March 2013,para 1) What does inclusive education means to us and others? Inclusive education is a kind of education in which different kinds of diversity , culture , gender , race , gifted children has right to learn . Even the curriculum is setup in the way that includes everyone . There should be adoption of new methods and strategies which can help to reduce the exclusion . According to (UNESCO , 2009,pp8-9)a process of addressing and responding to the diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning , cultures and communities and reducing exclusion within from education . it involves changes and modifications in content , approaches , structures and strategies , with a common vision which covers all children of the appropriate age range and conviction that it is the responsibility of regular system to educate all children. All the definition by various writers and organization states inclusive education in a different way but the meaning is very similar that inclusion promotes education with special needs without making any discrimination. Inclusive Education is defined as a learning environment that promotes the full personal , academic and professional development of all learners irrespective of race , class , color , gender , disability , sexual preference , learning styles and language.(NCSNET,1997,South Africa). Therefore , it also promotes that children with special needs should be allowed to attain their learning in local schools there is no need of special schools. A principle of inclusion education is that all children belongs at their local school , and all children are able to meaningfully participate and learn at their local school .(Kearney . A , 2011,p1) The Social Model of Disability The social model of disability says that disability is caused by the way society is organized rather than by a persons impairment or difference . It looks at ways of removing barriers that restrict life choices for disabled people . ( SCOPE , August 2014) for example ; buildings are designed so badly that there are no ramps and lifts for physically challenged people and there are lack of job opportunities . Even data shows In 2018, average pay for disabled employees was 12.2% lower than of non-disabled employees. The highest pay gap was in London , where disabled employees were paid 15.3% less than non-disabled employees, while the narrowest was in Scotland , at 8.3%.(The Guardian , December 2019)and there are few sign language interpreters are available who can communicate with them . Warnocks Report (1978) According to information provided by ( Education in England-HDA ,November 2007) Warnocks Report (1978) is committee which is based upon the education of handicapped children and young people . The special educational needs committee held its first meeting in September 1974 . Objectives and key points are also given by (Education in England HDA ,November 2007) The demands of handicapped toddlers under the age of five .The educational needs of disable students in ordinary schoolSpecial schools and boarding provision and laws by government .Educational and other needs of disabled as a school learners . Some key laws and key points given by Warnocks Report Local education authority should have a centre for research development and in service training should be provide to teacher regarding special educational needs so they can considered as a great help to impart knowledge to disabled pupil .Health authorities should make sufficient resource to promote effective child health services .Young people with special needs should be given the necessary support to enable them to attend ordinary courses of further education .No child with special educational needs who is in care should be placed in an independent school without agreement between the local education authority and the social services department . Salamanca statement is considered to be so important in history because it gives us information about the frameworks for action , rights of child rules on Equalization of Opportunities . Schools should accommodate all children regardless of their physical , intellectual , emotional , social , linguistic or other conditions.(Article 3, Salamanca Framework for Action,pp14) Regular schools with this inclusive orientation are the most effective means of combating discriminatory attitudes , creating welcoming communities , building an inclusive society and achieving education for all; moreover, they provide an effective education to the majority of children improve the efficiency and ultimately the cost-effectiveness of entire education system.(Article 2,Salamanca Statement,pp14) There some rights based documents which provide its contribution to understand inclusion : UNCRC , the UNCRPD UNCRC The United Nations Convention on the Rights of child (UNCRC) , one of the most renounced treaties in the world , is a legally blind international agreement that sets out the civil , political , economic , social and cultural rights of every child , irrespective of their race , religion or abilities . UNCRC is based on premise that basic fundamental rights belong to every child . it has 54 articles which set out childrens rights as well as how governments should work together to make them available to all children . Governments are required to take efforts to meet childrens basic needs and also help them in achieving their full potential.(Importance of UNCRC for Children and The Way Forward Save the Children , November 2019) THE UNCRC (1989) Article 12 States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child , the views of child , the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child . Article 23 States Parties recognize that a mentally or physically disabled child should enjoy a full and decent life , in conditions which ensure dignity , promote self reliance and facilitate the childs active participation in the community . Article 29 States Parties agree that the education of the child shall be directed to: The development of childs personality , talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential ;The development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms , and for the principles enshrined in the charter of the United Nations;The development of respect for the childs parents , his or her own cultural identity , language and values , for the national values of the country in which the child is living , the country from which he or she may originate , for civilization different from his or her own ;The preparation of the child for responsible life in free society , in the spirit of understanding , peace , tolerance , equality of sexes , and friendship among all peoples , ethnic , national and religious groups and persons of indigenous origin ; UNCRPD UNCRPD is United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities . it is an international treaty that aims to protect the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities . The Conventions became one of the most quickly supported human rights instruments in history with strong from all regional groups .(UNCRPD : Summary , Important Points , PDF and Infographic WECAPABLE , May 2018) Article 10 : Right to life People with disability have the right to access all aspects of society on an equal basis with others including the physical environment , transportation , information and communications , and other facilities and services provided to the pubic . Article 17 : Protecting the integrity of the person Every person with disability has a right to respect for his or her physical and mental integrity on an equal basis with others . Article 24 (Education): In realizing this right , States Parties shall ensure that : Persons with disabilities are not excluded from the general education system on the basis of disability , and that children with disabilities are not excluded from free and compulsory primary education , or from secondary education , on the basis of disability;Persons with disabilities can access an inclusive , quality and free primary education on an equal basis with other in the communities in which they live ;Reasonable accommodation of the individuals requirement is provided;Persons with disabilities receive the support required , within the general education system , to facilitate their effective education ;Effective individualized support measures are provided in environments that maximize academic and social development , consistent with the goal of full inclusion . (Overview of the articles of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities-Australian Human Rights Commission , August 2016)
ET7727 Critical Approaches of Inclusive
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