Case Study ICT policies intended to develop smart living in Taiwan Fifty years ago, Taiwan was a resource-poor developing country (Dahl & Lopez-Claros, 2005). By executing sustainable good policies such as the encouragement of foreign direct investment in the past few decades, Taiwan had overcome the situation ofits shortage of natural resources through the transformation from agricultural to industrial economy (Dahl & Lopez-Claros, 2005; Lin, Cheng & Sha, 2003; Zheng & Hu, 2008). However,Sinceasthe emergence of ICT has contributed to economic growth and the maintenance of competitiveness among countries which has resulted in ICT becoming the fastest growing industry in most countries, Taiwans government realised the necessity of transforming economy again from the traditional labour-intensive industries to technologically intensive industries (Heeks, 2010; Lin, Cheng & Sha, 2003; Zheng & Hu 2008). The promotion of science and technology as a national priority, thus, was determined by the state in the late 1960s which subsequently led to the establishment of Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and paved the road of Taiwan toward the prosperity of development of ing ICT industry in Taiwan (Yee, 2013).This is because commissioned Commissioned by the government,that ITRI promoted industrial upgrading and exploited domestic and global resources through the collaboration with government, research organisations and industries to build ICT capabilities and to instruct the capabilities ofindustries (Lin, Cheng & Sha, 2003; Yee, 2013). These collaborationssped up the commercialisation of ICT products such as semiconductor in Taiwan, and then motivated the development of technology-based industries which produces the worldwide largestleading ICT companies such as United Microelectronics Company and Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company in the 1980s (Yee, 2013).Later on, the emergence of cloud computing changed ICT industry value chain which began an era ofby introducing global competition based on software and services and negativelyaffected Taiwans ICT industry tremendously on the existing marginal profit picture of ICT hardware (Wang & Unger, 2013; Yang & Hsu, 2011). The transformation of ICT industry became the main priority for the government (Yee, 2013). The establishment of Institute for Information Industry (III) established in 1979 was in charge of running a project to develop cloud technology for assisting the transformation of ICT industrys technology (Yee, 2013). Through the assistance of III, the enhancement of adding integratingsoftware into ICT hardware commodities, which canto deliver cloud infrastructure and services, brings on higher value to customers and higher margin for Taiwans ICT companies, and enables them to be able to reach the worldwide markets of cloud technology (Wang & Unger, 2013).Taiwans previous ICT policies indicate that tThe Taiwanese government has succeed in promoting ICT development and ICT innovation by implementing ICT policies which contributed to Taiwans new economic growth in ICT field.However, Taiwan still has much scope for the creation of higher values ICT industry that would needed to beis built on novel services, products and systems (Lee et al., 2011). As the current worlds environment of many advanced countries have been attaching the importance of innovating ICT as the application of smart living into various areas such as healthcare, transportation, public service and energy, Taiwans advantages still on mass ICT manufacturing have been decreased the needs from international buyers on ICT hardware commodities year by year (Chen, 2012; Lee et al., 2011). In response to this situation, Taiwans government proposed ICT policies such as e-Taiwan, M-Taiwan and i-Taiwan which were focused on the infrastructure of constructing smart living technology infrastructure in recent years. e-Taiwan was planned to assist Taiwan to push forward national ICT infrastructure and to advance ICT applications in order to build makeTaiwan as one ofof the country that hasthehaving most high-tech services (e.g., e-government and e-transportation) countries in Asia.; M-Taiwan was to build ubiquitously wireless broadband to provide broadband mobile services for the public and to enhance the introduction of smart technologies (e.g., mobile service, people can access each governmental service via the construction of broadband mobile network) for the quality of peoples life; i-Taiwan was based on the contributions of e-Taiwan and M-Taiwan to expand the environment of ICT infrastructure for the innovation of ICT services. Followed by these ICT policies, i236 project was proposed as a leading programme to seek the application of smart living. The dimensions of this project for Taiwan were threefold (Lee et al., 2011). The first dimension was related to smart living that enabled the cultivation of new industries by connecting workforce professionals across the country. The creation of new industries allowed the leverage of information and insight awareness to enhance the further application of smart living such as Living Zones or Living Labs.The second one aimed to promote business opportunities for local industries and ensured that local industries can be capably integrated with ICT technology for the execution of national smart livinginitiative.Thirdly, i-236 the project was to haveshould develop smart living innovation models which were based on user needs; for example, two types of living zone (city and town) and three main ICT technologies (wireless broadband network, digital TV network and wireless sensor network) will be combined for the improvement of quality of peoples life through the applications of safety, medication, convenience, agriculture and sustainable energy savings. In the past, Taiwans ICT policies focused on high margin and technology-driven ICT. In this smart living initiative, a service-driven model gave the important role for users as the part of new ICT policies direction. The future ICT polices in Taiwan will be focused on the creation of differentiated services and different sectors from manufacturing to other areas. Smart living initiatives will be planned out for adoptinguse ICT as a tool in order to enhance Taiwans globally industrial competitiveness and improve the quality of peoples life. Figure 1 Actor Network of ICT policy making toward smart living in Taiwan ICT policies making toward smart living in Taiwan form an actor network which includes the actors of Executive Yuan, Ministry of Economic Affair (MOEA), Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW), Ministry of the Interior (MOTI), ITRI, III, ICT industry, science parks, ICT capabilities (e.g., ICT infrastructure and cloud technology) and R&D (e.g., epidemic prevention and disaster prevention).This research utilises ANT as a lens to analyse the formation process of the network and to understand human and non-human actors in the network and the interaction between the actors how they form smart living initiatives.Through analysing each ICT policy of translation, a deeper understanding regarding the formations process of the network is obtained.This research encodes ICT policies as P1, P2 etc. by the order of time as shown in Figure 1. Problematisation In the initialisation of Taiwans ICT policy, the actors included Executive Yuan, MOEA, MOST, ITRI, III, ICT industry, science parks, ICT infrastructure. MOEA was a focal actor in the beginning initial developmentof this network to form ICT policy. This is because MOEA defined the identity of some actors such as ITRI and III.ITRI and III was announced by MOEA to establish in order to develop Taiwans ICT capabilities and ICT industrial technologies such as semiconductor and assist Taiwans ICT R&D, the extension of ICT applicationand the construction for ICT infrastructure.The establishment of these two institutes reveals that the technologies of non-human actors, which were absent in Taiwan, were identified by MOEA (ITRI, 2018; III, 2018; P1, P2).After the establishment of ITRI and III by MOEA, the approaches of how to react economic and industrial transformation were the issue in terms of lacking the resources to support the practical application of ICT industry.The involvement of MOST actor to establish science parks in the formation process of the network tackled the issue as the establishment of science parks shapes the environment and condition of ICT industrial development.This contribution enables the human resources between Taiwanese and foreign research and academic institutes to be able to interact each other for the purpose of ICT technological development and innovation; within the interaction, the generation of new and innovative ICT technologies encourages high-tech industrial development in Taiwan which leads the ICT firms of science parks to be committed to develop ICT innovation in terms of production and technology. This action shows the way of how Taiwans government interacted with the existence of non-human actors such as semiconductor and ICT R&D to decide the policy for the development of these technologies and to facilitate the interaction between human and non-human actors in the operation of science parks establishment (P3).However, with the development of ICT and practical application of ICT industry, ICT-based development for national ICT infrastructure in terms of ICT application among government and people becomes the long-range objective as governments around the world had planned forward-looking ICT policies for their ICT infrastructures construction (P6). To react this trend, namely e-Taiwan (2002), M-Taiwan (2003) and u-Taiwan (2008), which were focused on the construction of broadband and wireless infrastructure, and the innovation of public service through the combination of internet, were promoted in order to construct Ubiquitous Network Society (UNS) (P4, P5, P7).The series of these three ICT policies were the beginning of formation process of the network in Taiwans ICT policies making toward smart living. As the purpose goalsof governmental action in these ICT policies are (P4, P5, P7), the construction of UNS is to enable people to be able to enjoy food, closing, housing, travel, education, and so on ubiquitously by accessing e-service.Combining ubiquitous network with peoples needs to facilitate socio-economic and technological development is aimed for the application of new technology to enhance lifes quality in the construction of good environment, industry and living. Applying ICT into the broad areas of human living reveals that these three ICT policies were required to encompass effort across various human and non-human actors. Therefore, the interaction between human and non-human actors in the formation process of the network is obvious. For example, 1) Executive Yuan coordinates with each city government and telecommunication companies to construct the environment of broadband infrastructure (P4). Telecommunication companies need to know their capabilities whether are capable of participating in the execution of ICT policy. 2) Executive Yuan instructs variously governmental ministries to join together for the next five years with the policy in order to meet peoples demands for innovative services by connecting with internet and combining with smart sensing equipment (P7). Executive Yuan needs to clarify the condition of ICT infrastructurebefore executing the ICT policy in its instruction to different ministries and meeting peoples demands for innovatively public services. Based on the explanation, Executive Yuan can be defined as an arbiter in these three ICT policies as it involved various actors to be converged on a certain topic as the narrow end of a funnel. The construction of collaborative relationship among different ministries, local governments, private organisations andtheir capabilities,internet and smart sensing equipment, and peopleshows Executive Yuan that was a necessary element for the formation of the network of these ICT policies.Executive Yuan mediated the interaction with actors in this network and defined the action. The involvement of focal role to construct the network reveals that Executive Yuan is to establish negotiation space which allows actors a degree of autonomy from the action of network. Therefore, Executive Yuan became an obligatory OPP at the point of developing ICT toward smart living in Taiwan. Interessement Executive Yuan convinced other actors to accept the definitions and interests of ICT policies making toward smart living (P6, P8, P9, P10). Firstly,private organisations in Taiwan have been assisted by the government to develop and innovate their technologies in order to collaborate with the execution of future ICT policies (P6). Through the governmental assistance, private organisations have the opportunities to expand their business range based on Taiwans existing ICT advantages. For example, in the development of Taiwans six emerging industries, the development of tourism can combine with cultural and creative industry, and the combination whose parts have the relation with the utilisation of digital content links back to ICT development again(P9). Private organisations undoubtedly obtain benefits as they can cooperate with each other. However, innovative technologies have mutual benefit with private organisations to be advanced in function through the interaction between human and non-human actors. Secondly, Non-governmental units, on the one hand, were defined as the roles of collaborating with industries in the execution of innovative ICT application for smart living. For example, ITRI and III are in charge of combining workingwith key industries to establish the practice of smart livings application and to introduce innovative application and service (P8). Their interests, on the other hand, were able to obtain innovative technologies because in the collaboration with industries, facilitating the combination across the areas of technological industries can transfer new technology to another one. As a result of the assistance with non-governmental units are incorporated as another beneficiary in the execution of smart living initiatives.Finally, the intention of involving multiple parties to ensure the execution of smart living initiatives reveals that one facet of scalability. The prolonged implementation of leading Taiwans non-ICT industries to connect with the application of ICT and ICT technology from ICT industry makes people as the would-be beneficiary. The indication from Intelligent Taiwan (2009) that the policy is focused on the integration of technology and culture. It is to establish a smart living environment which works together with innovatively technological services to promote the concept of smart living in order to provide people with a good living environment. By expanding the application of ICT, people are able to enjoy e-life through multiple channels despite their educational, economic, regional and physical differences. The innovative development of Taiwans ICT and non-ICT industries and the construction of smart living environment are revealed to be as the purpose of this smart living initiative which directly contributes to people having more ways to access ICT. In addition, non-human actors are the beneficiary in this smart living initiative as ICT application is the way of how human actors apply ICT into the areas which they want.The expansion of ICT enables technologies such as wireless broadband to be further utilised with the combination of IoT. Enrolment The local governments, MOEA, MOTI and MOHW enrolled the network via Executive Yuan for the execution of Taiwans smart living initiatives (P6, P11, P12, P13, P15). Private organisations were also enrolled the network as the contents of smart living initiatives required the capabilities of private organisations; by involving the capabilities of private organisations, non-human actors enrolled smart living initiatives (P6, P11, P12). For example, cloud computing and the sensors equipment of smart green building have been applied into the cloud innovative service of remote healthcare (P15). Smart living initiatives also enrolled big data to get the promotion and attention from Taiwans government (P14).As an example, many governments around the world have utilised big data to advance the application of epidemic prevention, disaster prevention, healthcare and environmental protection. Executive Yuan announced open data policy by utilising big data to construct the service platform of governmental big data and to encourage research and academic institutes for utilising governmental big data to do the research areas of epidemic prevention, disaster prevention, smart transportation, and so on.Through the promotion of big data (2012), big data is utilised in the switch of user-centric requirement into the introductions reference of human machine interface for designing the application of smart living. In addition, more ICT innovations such as e-book, internet TV and living computer were enrolled in the plan of smart livings application (2010-2013) as big data was announced by Executive Yuan (P14).The successful enrolment of actors from governmental stakeholders, private organisations and technologies forms smart living initiatives in Taiwan which interprets the dynamic and mutual influence between human and non-human actors in the network. The uncertainty of actors is demonstrated that sometimes actors have power to enrol and dominate, or by contrast, actors without initiative can allow themselves to be enrolled. The establishment of this actor network reveals the realised potential of providing benefits for people to access smart living services, ICT technologies to be upgraded and government to innovate public services. The outcomes from the report of these ICT policys documents show the establishment of network was solid as the expression of actual benefits on people, governmental stakeholders and ICT is mutual contribution between human and non-human actors. Mobilisation In this stage, a focal actor, which is Executive Yuan, ensured that all actors in smart living initiatives acted according to the process of developing smart living initiatives through the execution of Taiwans ICT policies. The plan of popularising the application of smart living in urban and rural areas as an inscription of translation result shows that the smart living initiative was initiated in 2017 (P16). With the development of this initiative, the network kept repeating the stage of enrolment and mobilisation. For example,before the announcement of popularising the application of smart living in urban and rural areas plan, ICT industry such as cloud computing and IoT-related was invited to the opening of making Taiwanese healthcare clouds plan in the stage of enrolment. In the stage of mobilisation, these areas of ICT industry were continuously involved in the smart living initiative in terms of the introduction of sensor and cloud technology in traffic.By involving the capabilities of private organisations, non-human actors were also existed in these two stages as the technologies of ICT industry were applied into smart living initiatives. However, the network formed other inscriptions such as website, news report and document from governmental units which enriched the exposure of this smart living initiatives information to Taiwans people.The smart living initiative is revealed that the network is stable having the norm and operational rule. This is because it formed the meeting of a regular convention to communicate, coordinate and review the situation of executing the smart living initiative. The results of meetings were utilised to coordinate with the guidance of Executive Yuan for assisting to establish a feasible model for the local governments inter-office integration, industry introduction, equipment maintenance procurement and data opening, so as to facilitate the sustainable operation of related application services.The deliberate attempt to involve the local governments and private organisations is aimed to support the process of this smart living initiative.As clarification (P16) that if one of parties in the network whichever is the centre government, local governments or private organisations meets obstacles during the execution of policy, one of them may provide solutions for solving the obstacles. The involvement of multiple parties in this initiative, thus, is revealed the mobilisation of all the available resources around the network as actors will support each other when obstacles are occurred from different actors. Following the initial ICT policy from developing ICT capabilities and industry to smart living initiatives, the coherent ICT policies had made the development of smart living initiatives sustainably. The initiator unambiguously assigned the stakeholders to be independent for implementing the missions when ICT policies and smart living initiatives had been launched.The result shows that Taiwans ICT policies reach self-sustainability for the governmental units, research institutes and ICT industry which had contributed to the development of smart living initiatives as Executive Yuan had planned. References Chen, Y. T. (2012). 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Taiwan Perspective: Developing Smart Living Technology.International Journal of Automation and Smart Technology,1(1), 93-106. Lin, B. S. P., Cheng, R., & Sha, H. C. K. (2003). A way to prosperity: Competitive analysis of ICT industries in Taiwan. InProceedings of East Asian Papers in World Forum on Information Society (WFIS), a Parallel Event of WSIS(pp. 303-317). Wang, G., & Unger, J. (2013). A strategy to move taiwansit industry from commodity hardware manufacturing to competitive cloud solutions.Ieee Access,1, 159-166. Yang, S. O., & Hsu, C. (2011). The organizing vision for cloud computing in Taiwan.Journal of electronic commerce research,12(4), 257. Yee, A. (2013). For the internet age, Taiwans ICT industry needs a new model.Global Asia,8(4), 67-73. Zheng, C., & Hu, M. C. (2008). Challenge to ICT manpower planning under the economic restructuring: Empirical evidence from MNCs in Singapore and Taiwan.Technological Forecasting and Social Change,75(6), 834-853.
Fifty years ago, Taiwan was a resource
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