GAP = Good Agricultural

GAP = Good Agricultural Practices

Instructions: Barriers, perceived or real, to farmers complying with GAP standards for vegetable production in Vietnam. (GAP = Good Agricultural Practices: they are themselves a bare minimum) So the first thing you can do is to look carefully at the data that I provided and see which parts are relevant for this question (probably most of them), and organize them in a way that can be useful for your analysis.In a second step, identify data in this set on which you can do some simple calculations in Excel, for example to relate two sets of data or to calculate certain ratios (which youll need to identify).In a third step, you will probably need to identify what other information (which can be qualitative) you will need to study the topic of your thesis and which are not in the provided data set: you will need to do some extra research by yourself. Structure of the proposal 1. Title Barriers, perceived or real, to farmers complying with GAP standards for vegetable production in Vietnam. 2. Introduction (700 words) Basic introduction about topic then include (i)Statement of justificationexplaining why the topic is significant. The topic is significant because of growing concerns of food security globally especially in developing countries. There is limited understanding about the GAP programme, how it can be implemented and why it has not been adopted by the majority of farmers (MARD, 2013). With the instigation of gap standards the issue of compliance in vegetable production becomes significant. Investigating the challenges Vietnamese farmers facing for adoption of GAP programme for vegetables provides useful insights to what will influence farmers for complying to the GAP. Such insights, this research argues, will be of value for proposing and designing policies to enhance the implementation of the GAP programme, and also how the government facilitate technological changes as expected. This will help increase the uptake of GAP by farmers specially for vegetable in Vietnam. (Modify this too) (ii)(Literature review) Background information that summarises the current knowledge found in the 10-15 key papersrelating to the field of study and (iii)Conclusionwith a clearly expressed statement of the knowledge gap that you identified: this should lead the reader logically to your research questions. 3. Research questions Based on the knowledge presented in the Introduction, formulate a concise set of 2-3 research questions. It should be obvious to the reader, because they have read your introduction, why you have chosen these. Research questions 1. How can complying with the GAP standard improve the quality of vegetable production? (main question, focus should be on this) Auxiliary questions 2. Do the investment cost overcome the benefits of GAP certification like income? 3. Are available resources and infrastructure sufficient to comply with the GAP standards? 4. Significance and outcomes(300 words)-This section contains a statements about how the anticipated results fit into the bigger picture and how this project will contribute to the overall advancement of the discipline. 5. Experimental design (500 words) (data is already provided here , after word limits under DATA name. You need to analyse this data.)A clear outline (can be in dot-points) of your experimental design and how the experiment will be set-up and managed. You will also describe how your samples will be analysed and how the resulting data will be statistically analysed and presented. The design must be strongly linked to research questions and the proposed statistical analyses must be suitable for the design. You may wish to include a list of equipment required. 6. Reference list 7. AppendixInclude an appendix with the first and last page of an article from the most recent issue of the journal you have chosen as a referencing style guide. Word limits: Introduction, Aims and Significance and Outcomes around 500-1000 words (about 2 pages) of text. Experimental design around 500 words of text. Acknowledgements, appendices, reference list, cover page, table of contents, figures and tables, including their legends, are additional to the word limits. While the reference list is not included in the word limits, in-text citations are included. Assessors will not read text beyond the word limit. DATA The extent farmers know about the government defined packages of good agricultural practices (GAP) The extent farmers know about good agricultural practices (n=319)Count%Do not know Have heard of it but do not understand Do not care Somewhat know Fully understand83 41 5 109 8126.02% 12.85% 1.57% 34.17% 25.39% Major factors challenging farmers adoption of GAP FactorsCount%The investment costs were too high19313.43%The additional workload was too high15710.93%Absence of a price premium for certified produce16311.34%Difficult to find stable marketing channels15811.00%Consumers do not trust certified produce, and they still buy conventional vegetables1409.74%Do not understand about GAP criteria/requirements15911.06%Cannot implement the GAP standards on time1248.63%Record keeping was too complicated and difficult1208.35%Do not receive much support from government and local agencies14810.30%Others755.22%Total1437100% 3. Farmers practices 3.1 The use of pesticides The pest control strategies adopted in the vegetable farms The pest control strategies adopted%CountPlanned crop rotation19.98%219Trap insects17.70%194Insect natural enemies2.37%26Plant disease or insect resistant crop varieties9.40%103Insecticides made from the mixture of wine, ginger, garlic, chilli10.04%110Bio-pesticides27.92%306Synthetic pesticides10.58%116Other2.01%22Total100%1096 The places where farmers buy pesticides Count%Pesticide local shop/retailers27463.87%Cooperatives11927.74%Pesticide companies255.83%Buy from traditional market20.47%Other, specify92.10%Total429100% Factors influence farmers pesticide application decision (e.g., choosing the kinds of pesticide, dose, the rate, time, and the method used) Count%Presence of pests or damage26817.93%My own experience27018.06%Pesticide retailers advice21914.65%Instruction on the pesticide label21214.18%Markers demand (e.g., prefer appealing appearance, good looking)966.42%Advice from extension agents17011.37%Other farmers practices1328.83%Predetermined schedule1147.63%Other, specify140.94%Total1495100% QuestionNoYesNo ideaNo.%No.%No.%Do you understand the toxic label/signs on the pesticide containers6620.75%24476.73%82.52%Have you ever received Integrated pest management (IPM) training10332.39%20664.78%92.83%Do you think that trends in pesticide use are increasing (n=319)8626.9622369.91103.13Do you believe that trends in using plant growth promoters are increasing (n=319)10633.2316451.414915.36Do you know the names of some pesticide types are not allowed (n=317)13642.918157.0900Could you tell the names of some plant growth promoters that you know (319)19962.3812037.6200 Do you usually obey the instructions (about dose and the use) printed on the pesticide label? LevelsNeverSometimesDo not know/prefer not to sayMost of the timeAlwaysPracticesCount (%)Count (%)Count (%)Count (%)Count (%)Do you usually obey the instructions (about dose and the use) printed on the pesticide label (318)17 (5.35%)21(6.60%)3 (0.94%)67 (21.07%)210 (66.04%)Do you often mix several kinds of pesticides to spray at one time (n=316)78 (24.68%)24 (7.59%)69 (21.84%)68 (21.52%)77 (24.37%)Do you often comply with interval time after spraying pesticides (n= 318)5 (1.57%)27 (8.49%)2 (0.63%)41 (12.89%)243 (76.42%)According to your best guess, do you think that other farmers comply with interval time after spraying pesticides (n=315)7 (2.22%)82 (26.03%)44 (13.97%)67 (21.27%)115 (36.51%) NeversometimesHave no opinionMost of the timeAlwaysPracticesCount (%)Count (%)Count (%)Count (%)Count (%)Do you usually use more than the recommended dose (higher or denser), to make sure the pesticide is effective (318)226 (71.07)45 (14.15)1 (0.31)20 (6.29)26 (8.18)Do other farmers often mix several kinds of pesticides to spray at one time (n=316)30 (9.4)93 (29.5)50 (15.67)71 (22.26)75 (23.51)After harvesting vegetables, do you usually spray herbicides (Non-selective herbicides co chay) for your vegetable plots (n=313)196 (62.62)52 ( 16.61)024 (7.67)41 (13.10)To save time after harvesting vegetables, do other farmers usually spray herbicides (Non-selective herbicides) for their vegetable plots (n=314)57 (18.15)141 ( 44.9)18 (5.73)57 (18.15)41 (13.06) The number of times farmers spray pesticides for the two kinds of the highest income-vegetables Types of vegetables brought the highest income in 2017The number of times sprays pesticides per seasonthe longest growing seasonsMean (SD)MinMax25-40Choy sum3.94 (2.22)11025-45Cabbage6.27 (3.32)21660-90Chinese Broccoli3.78 (2.34)01425-45Chinese mustard, bamboo leaf2.54 (1.31)1625-45Chinese mustard6.59 (2.99)21545-65Water morning glory1.23 (0.86)0310-30Cauliflower5.04 (3.18)01460-90Chinese cabbage7.96 (4.65)32760-90Broccoli4.94 (2.11)21060-90Ceylon spinach0.66 (0.56)023-30Green onion2.67 (1.12)2530-40Bok choi5.0 (1.85)2825-40Water celery1.5 (0.71)1240Herb200lettuce111AmaranthN/AN/AN/AFolium sauropi0 3.2 recordkeeping of farming activities. NeversometimesHave no opinionMost of the timeAlwaysDo you usually write the recordkeeping of your farm activities (n=318)156 (49.06)45 (14.15)084 (26.42)33 (10.38) LevelsNeverDailyWeeklyEvery two weeksMonthlyWhen have activities (spraying pesticides, applying fertilizers, etc.)How often are records updated156 (49.37)48 (15.19)41 (12.97)7 (2.22)19 (6.01)45 (14.24) 3.3 Kinds of water resources you often use for irrigation in vegetable farm and washing vegetables after harvesting Water resources often used for irrigation and washing vegetables.Water resources often used for irrigationWater resources commonly used for washing vegetablesUntreated sewage water nearby Industrial wastewater/household wastewater Irrigation canal nearby/drainage canals River/lake Tap water Well water Pond Do not need to wash TotalCount%Count%3 1 54 22 16 290 2 n/a 3880.77 0.26 13.92 5.67 4.12 74.74 0.52 n/a 1001 0 7 21 47 237 2 68 3830.26 0 1.83 5.48 12.27 61.88 0.52 17.76 100 3.4 The planting areas and the production methods used to grow vegetables Land use that borders onto vegetable fields Land use (n=318)Count%No3611.32 %Yes28288.68 %Vegetable fields bound by the following types of areas (n=282)Residential area14522.13 %Riparian area8312.67 %Industrial area294.43 %Irrigation canals16725.5 %Bury area274.12 %Drainage canals11918.17 %Landfill111.68 %Road7411.3 %Total665100 % 3.5 Kinds of fertilizers usually used for your vegetable farm Kinds of fertilizers normally usedCount%Chemical fertilizers25528.46%Microbiological fertilizer26729.80%Manual22425.00%Mixed fertilizers9010.04%Other606.70%Total896100% The number of times farmers apply fertilizers for the two kinds of the highest income-vegetables Types of vegetables brought the highest income in 2017The number of times applies fertilizers per seasonMean (SD)MinMaxChoy sum2.62 (1.21)17Cabbage4.27 (2.23)112Chinese Broccoli2.73 (1.47)110Chinese mustard, bamboo leaf1.90 (0.78)14Chinese mustard2.62 (1.54)18Water morning glory1.40 (0.7)0.253Cauliflower3.17 (2.04)110Chinese cabbage4.12 (1.74)29Broccoli3.12 (0.99)25Ceylon spinach1.1 (1.0)0.254Green onion2.1 (0.74)13Bok choi4.25 (1.58)26Water celery1.5 (0.71)12Herb1.67 (0.57)12lettuce222AmaranthN/AN/AN/AFolium sauropi0 To what extent do you practice according to GAPs criteria in vegetable production? NeverApplied some criteriaDo not care/have no opinionApplied most of the criteriaApplied all the criteriaTo what extent do you practice according to GAPs criteria in vegetable production (n=318)28 (8.81%)99 (31.13%)12 (3.77%)105 (33.02%)74 (23.27%) What factors have impacts on your decisions in apply GAP in producing safe vegetables? FactorsCount%Consumers23720.12%Other farmers practices12310.44%Costs and benefits17915.20%Universitys research665.60%Vegetable traders/Retailers625.26%Government regulations11910.10%Media14812.56%Farmer groups17815.11%Other factors665.60%Total1178100% NobodySome people applyAlmost people applyAll people applyHave no opinionAs you know in your living area, To what extent do other farmers practice according to GAPs criteria in their vegetable production (n=315)15100154424 Which methods do you apply to plant vegetables (n=319) Vietgap vegetables Safe vegetables Conventional vegetables43 98 18413.23 30.15 56.62 If vegetables are detected with a food safety violation, what types of impacts that producers could have? In terms of this issue, farmers said that if detected violation, they may only be reminded, and poor reputation. Regarding theory, they may not sell products and be inspected more regularly, pay a slight or heavy fine, or have to apply additional food safety practices, but in reality, these remarkably rarely happen. Thus, there has no much impact on them. They explained that there is a lack of extension officers or no appearance of inspectors to test vegetables or their practices, except only some of the other neighbour farmers may notice. Even though if they are detected to violate PHI, use chemicals outside permitted chemical list issued by MARD, and etc.. They can still normally sell all of their produce if they want in further markets or bring to wholesale markets, tractability is impossible. When I interviewed some of the extension officers, they said that they sometimes visit the fields and see the pesticides packages left over to detect whether farmers use unpermitted chemicals or not. They can check by reading the chemical ingredients printed on the bags, then compare to the permitted chemical list issued by MARD, but they are lack of power and tools to control the situation. They also mentioned some of the main challenges facing them. The first difficulty is the long testing time. To check pesticide residuals, they have to send vegetable samples to the standard laboratory and wait from 1 to 2 weeks, during that time, they cannot force farmers to wait until they get the testing results, they cannot be responsible for farmers lost. Likewise, farmers can sell all of the produce nobody supervise them. Quick test tools sometimes provided but less common in use; besides, these tools can only detect the certain limited chemical ingredients (about 5 main ingredients). The MARD also published the list of about 40 banned chemical ingredients, but in reality, according to the extension officers, there are thousands of chemical ingredients and so many new pesticides names trading in the market. The number of active substances and names of pesticides is also ever-increasing. According to statistics of the Hanoi Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, there is now about 1785 active substance of pesticides and 4094 pesticide names. Thus, managing farmers practices is a complicated task due to + Lack of capacity to test the other active substances of pesticides residue in vegetables + Farmers sell all their vegetables before the test results come. Thus, the functional agencies cannot penalize them, or cannot ask them to wait to sell their produce until having the results of pesticide residues because vegetables will be too old to sell. + Lack of staffs and financial support to check and supervise farmers practices Farmers attitudes Farmers opinions about the places where contamination of fresh vegetable most likely occur A On farm B Transporting process C Wholesale/retail D Food preparation Q45 To what extent do you believe that following contaminants in vegetables (including foodborne microorganisms and chemical residues) are likely to cause risk for peoples health? In your opinion, what are the chances that factors below can affect peoples health? It apparent from the table below that the high percentage of participants supposed the foodborne microorganisms and chemical residues are the least likely to cause fatal for people, these contaminants are most likely cause mild food poisoning symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, in which Coliforms, Salmonella, E.colli, and pesticide residuals have been seen as the main factors. In addition, vegetable farmers ranked chemical contaminants higher than microorganisms regarding the health risks they may cause for vegetable consumers. There are not many chances that biological and chemical contaminants can cause consumers to be very sick or have chronic complications symptoms, but the residuals or pesticides and heavy metal that may have moderate chances. 1 = not at all (impossible); 2 = 2 = rather unlikely; 3 = do not know, 4 = moderately likely; 5 = very likelyFrequency scale (%)Mean (SD)12345VirusesFatal43.31%19.11%14.01%16.88%6.69%2.25 (1.34)Depression18.47%21.02%14.33%36.62%9.55%2.98 (1.30)Chronic complications symptoms17.83%17.20%20.70%35.03%9.24%3.01 (1.27)Very sick22.61%20.06%16.88%31.53%8.92%2.84 (1.32)Mild food poisoning symptoms (diarrhea, vomiting)7.96%16.56%12.10%37.90%25.48%3.56 (1.25)ParasitesFatal58.28%16.24%7.96%12.42%5.10%1.90 (1.27)Depression25.80%22.93%7.96%37.26%6.05%2.75 (1.35)Chronic complications symptoms24.84%20.70%11.46%34.71%8.28%2.81 (1.36)Very sick29.30%21.34%10.83%30.25%8.28%2.67 (1.38)Mild food poisoning symptoms (diarrhea, vomiting)11.46%16.88%8.60%41.08%21.97%3.45 (1.31)ColiformsFatal35.03%15.29%11.46%28.66%9.55%2.62 (1.44)Depression18.47%21.66%13.69%37.90%8.28%2.96 (1.29)Chronic complications symptoms23.89%16.56%16.56%34.08%8.92%2.88 (1.34)Very sick27.07%17.20%14.33%32.17%9.24%2.79 (1.38)Mild food poisoning symptoms (diarrhea, vomiting)6.05%13.69%9.87%39.17%31.21%3.76 (1.20)Salmonella and Escherichia coliFatal36.31%13.06%11.78%27.71%11.15%2.64 (1.48)Depression19.11%17.83%12.10%40.13%10.83%3.06 (1.33)Chronic complications symptoms23.25%17.83%16.88%31.85%10.19%2.88 (1.35)Very sick25.48%18.15%13.38%32.48%10.51%2.84 (1.39)Mild food poisoning symptoms (diarrhea, vomiting)5.75%13.74%9.90%37.38%33.23%3.79 (1.21)Pesticide residuesFatal47.13%17.83%1.59%27.39%6.05%2.27 (1.43)Depression18.79%19.43%2.55%46.82%12.42%3.15 (1.37)Chronic complications symptoms16.24%15.29%3.82%43.31%21.34%3.38 (1.39)Very sick25.16%20.38%3.50%37.26%13.69%2.94 (1.46)Mild food poisoning symptoms (diarrhea, vomiting)7.01%17.83%0.96%43.63%30.57%3.73 (1.26)Heavy metal residuesFatal48.09%14.01%10.51%20.38%7.01%2.24 (1.40)Depression19.11%19.75%10.51%40.45%10.19%3.03 (1.33)Chronic complications symptoms15.29%18.15%12.10%35.99%18.47%3.24 (1.35)Very sick20.70%18.79%11.46%35.35%13.69%3.03 (1.38)Mild food poisoning symptoms (diarrhea, vomiting)9.58%19.49%10.54%35.78%24.60%3.46 (1.31)Plant hormones, growth promotersFatal59.11%14.38%5.43%16.61%4.47%1.93 (1.31)Depression25.48%20.06%5.10%39.49%9.87%2.88 (1.41)Chronic complications symptoms23.25%18.15%5.73%41.40%11.46%3.00 (1.41)Very sick29.94%18.79%6.05%34.71%10.51%2.77 (1.45)Mild food poisoning symptoms (diarrhea, vomiting)8.60%17.20%4.14%43.95%26.11%3.62(1.27)

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