Imagine that you are an ethics consultant to a multinational company that makessmartphones. You also make the operating system that the smartphones run.You are based in the USA but your phones are used by tens of millions of people, acrossevery country in the world.In the grips of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the government of the USA hasapproached you to ask for help to access the phones of those who have died of the virus.The government believes that the phones will help them to trace the contacts of those whohave spread the virus to others and therefore to minimise the further spread of the virus.In response to this, civil rights groups are expressing concern about the fact that giving thegovernment a so-called back door key to access one phone in this way will allow thegovernment (and potentially hackers) to access every phone using this same system. Theyargue there are serious privacy concerns.The software architects point out that it is not possible to unlock only one phones in thisway, rather the change would have to be made so that all smartphones using the companysoperating system could be accessed using this same method.Meanwhile, users and lawyers in other countries are concerned that some governmentswill use this newfound access to identity and persecute their critics and those who areorganising to expose human rights abuses by governments and by multinationalcompanies operating in their countries. You also happen to know that this verysmartphone company has been accused of human rights abuses in its own supply chain insome of these countries.The CEO has come to you to ask for your advice with two main questions (below). Whatwould you advise her in response to those questions?1 What is the right thing for the company to do here? What would each of the three normativetheories we have covered in class (utilitarian, Kantian, and virtue ethics) have to say about thepush for governments to be able to unlock and access the data on phones in this way? Consider the questions around government regulation we covered in Module 4. How would yourecommend the CEO should think in response to an advocate of the narrow view of business andethics who says that the smartphone company does not need to consider the ethics of thisdecision because:
Imagine you are an ethics consultant to a multinational
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