EDU 3410: Research Essay Due Sunday of Week 7 Points Possible: 200 Informative essays have a mission to provide knowledge and details that will help readers gain new information about a subject matter. The focus is on the subject. The informative essay succeeds when readers connect new facts and concepts to what they already know. Topic Selection CHOOSE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING TOPICS: Whole language versus phonics Dyslexia Code switching Orthography Development of writing systems African American vernacular Phonemic awareness Phonological awareness Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills (BICS) versus Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) Krashens Theory of Second Language Acquisition Critical Period Hypothesis Etymology Northern Cities Chain shift versus The Great Vowel Shift Technologys impact on language Differences between the way men communicate and the way women communicate Hate speech English as the official US language Pidgins and Creoles Research Inquiry Once you have a topic, begin by constructing a research inquiry, which will provide a basis to begin your research. Do this by answering the following questions: What do I already know about the topic? What do I need to know about the topic in order to write about it? (Ask investigative questions that cover who, what, when, where, why, and how; paying close attention to the why and how since answers to these questions move beyond fact into inquiry.) What feelings or attitudes do I have about the topic? (How can I keep these out of my essay so that my writing is as free of bias as possible?) What might I be interested in discovering about the topic? Why is the topic relevant or interesting today? What questions can I ask about the topic? Answering the above questions should result in the primary research question below: What question will my essay address? Asking questions will result in a more critical approach to gathering data and writing your research essay, one that constructs meaning rather than regurgitating a collection of information or stringing together a patchwork of quotes and calling them research. Essay Requirements Length Ten-15 pages. A References page, which does not count toward the page length requirement. An abstract is not needed. Format APA Paper format In-text citations References page Research sources Eight-10 sources are required for the research essay. Articles and professional journals from the library databases will almost certainly afford the best research material. Books can be rich repositories of theoretical information that will be needed to complete in-depth research. YOU CAN USE SOURCES OTHER THAN THOSE IN THE LIBRARY DATABASES. HOWEVER, do not use blogs, e-mail, tweets, personal websites, wikis or various search engine about sources such as Wikipedia, eHow.com, Ask.com, About.com, WikiAnswers.com, Answers.com, Yahoo.com, Sociology.about.com, Psychology.about.com, CliffNotes.org, etc. The reason these sources are not valid is that wikis and abouts are open source encyclopedias meaning that anyone can post to them. Thus, you cannot with any degree of accuracy be certain that the information you are citing is correct or that the person who posted it had a clue as to what they were saying. They are unreliable as sources. An Internet (www) source may also be acceptable, as long as it meets criteria for credibility and is not a .com or a .net site. Follow these guidelines to avoid losing points on your research essay: All papers should have a separate title page. Review the APA guidelines about how to format your papers. Use Times New Roman 12 throughout the entire paper. Do not use different font sizes in your paper and do not use colored fonts, only use black font. Do not use contractions (cant, wont, its, doesnt, etc.) in your writing assignments. Contractions are abbreviations for the way we speak and are acceptable in some forms of writing. When writing for the academic world, however, it is important to write out the words. However, you can use contractions in your responses in the class discussions. Only use standard/formal vocabulary. If in doubt about whether to use a word, look it up in a dictionary. In the dictionary, a status label, such as Nonstandard, Slang, Informal, Offensive, or Derogatory, indicates that an entry word or a definition is limited to a particular level or style of usage. All words and definitions that do not have these labels should be regarded as appropriate for use in all standard or formal contexts. Double space and indent paragraphs throughout the paper. Also, double space the title page and the references. Do not write a paper with one long paragraph. Divide the paper into several paragraphs. This is not an opinion paper; however, you can take a position on the topic. Because it is a research paper, you will need to provide the majority of information from sources other than yourself. This means that you will need to paraphrase and summarize information from your sources in your own words. The paper should not be mainly direct quotations from your sources. You should have only two to three direct quotations in your paper. When you use a quote from another source, copy the quotation exactly, making sure to transfer the words, capitalization, and punctuation in the source. Provide an in-text citation for the quotation. The period goes after the in-text citation: people of the region (Olson, 2015, p. 23). The exception to the rule is when your quotation ends with an exclamation point or a question mark. In this case, the punctuation mark stays within the quotation marks, then you add the citation followed by a period: people of the region? (Olson, 2015, p. 23). When citing an authors exact words using quotations, be sure to include a page number. If there is no page number, include a paragraph number. For example, Rogers (2015) once wrote that two important elements of a helping relationship are genuineness and transparency (p. 37). Notice that the page number is included here and goes before the period. On the References page, the title References should appear WITHOUT quotation marks, WITHOUT underlining, and with only the R capitalized. Write the heading in the same font style and size as the other parts of the paper. All sources included in the References section must be cited in the body of the paper (and all sources cited in the paper must be included in the References section). The Reference list should be arranged alphabetically by the first authors last name. If there is no author, the works title should be arranged alphabetically. If the title of a work alphabetized by title begins with an article such as The, A, or An, keep the article in the title but alphabetize by the first significant word. So, for instance, the title A Selection of Musical Terms would be alphabetized under S, not A, even though it begins with A. Use hanging indents for references. The phrase hanging indent refers to a first line which sticks out one-half inch to the left. Hanging indents are easy to set up in word processors. (For example, in Microsoft Word, go to Format/Paragraph and one of the formatting options under Special is Hanging which will set up an appropriate hanging indent for that paragraph.) One of the unique aspects of APA formatting is that the guidelines specify using sentence-style capitalization for the titles of books or articles. Therefore, you should capitalize only the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions to this rule would be periodical titles (names of journals, magazines, newspapers, etc.) and proper names in a title (Chicago, United States, Microsoft, Nike, etc.) which should still be capitalized. Look at the following examples of how titles are written according to APA guidelines. In addition, review the APA course materials for more examples of how titles of books and articles are written. (NOTE: The title of the book in the first source is in italics. The title of the article in the second source is not written in italics. The title of the journal in the second source is in italics.) EXAMPLES: SOURCE FROM BOOK: Perloff, R. M. (2012). The dynamics of persuasion. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. SOURCE FROM JOURNAL: King, R. D. (2012, April). The effects of the economic crisis in the United States. Atlantic Monthly, 279, 55-64. To avoid errors, have your essay reviewed at the Writing Center, and Consulting/Tutoring Services. You can access these resources by going to the Modules Section and then clicking on Academic and Student Resources Information. For help formatting your papers and sources according to APA guidelines, review the information in APA Help. APA Help provides access to APA referencing, proper citation techniques, and tutorials on the subject. You can access this resource by going to the Modules Section and then clicking on APA Help. Also, here are some websites with information about how to write and format sources according to APA guidelines: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/general_format.html http://www.bibme.org/citation-guide/apa/ https://guides.rasmussen.edu/apa/formatting
Informative essays have a mission to
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