PPMP 20010:Executing and Closing ProjectsLecture 8 Project TerminationDr. Ronny Veljanovski, Bsc, PhD, GradCerTEd, PMPSenior Lecturer Project ManagementSchool of Engineering & Technology | Higher Education DivisionCQUniversity MelbourneTopics Material Topics Recap of Week 7 Activities for Week 8 PMBOK 5th Edition Kerzner Directing PRINCE2 Managing PRINCE2 Assessment 4 Audit & Termination2Material Books Kerzner (2013) Project Management: A Systems Approach toPlanning, Scheduling, and Controlling 11th ed. AXELOS/OGC (2009) Directing Successful Projects withPRINCE2 (purchase from the internet) AXELOS/OGC (2009) Managing Successful Projects withPRINCE2 (purchase from the internet) PMI (2013) A Guide to The Project Management Body ofKnowledge (PMBOK Guide) (purchase from the internet or accessthrough CQULibrary) Other Material Australian Standards Journal Articles YouTube Videos Lecturers & Tutorials Lecturers posted on Moodle3Weekly Topics1. Executing and closing projects2. Project performance management.3. Earned Value Management I.4. Earned Value Management II.5. Project Control Systems I.6. Project Control Systems II.7. Project Audit.8. Project Termination.9. Project Governance I.10. Project Governance II.11. Integration Management I.12. Integration Management II.4Week 7 Recap Quality Assurance Formal activities and processes that attempt toensure products/services/systems etc beingdeveloped meet required quality level Identify objectives and standards Be multifunctional and prevention orientated Collection and use of data for continuos improvement Quality auditsWeek 7 Recap Quality Control Activities and Techniques to create specificquality characteristics: Continually monitoring processes Identifying and mitigating problem causes Certifying that quality objectives are being met A good system will: Select what to control Establish measurement methods Compare actuals to quality standards Monitor and calibrate measuring tools Detailed documentationPRINCE 2 Approachto Quality(6.3)7Source: ManagingPRINCE 2, AXELOS2009Week 7 Recap Week 7 Recap PRINCE2 Issue and Change Control Procedure8Source: ManagingPRINCE 2, AXELOS2009PMBOK 4.4Monitor &ControlProjectWork9To meet the performanceobjectives defined in thePM plan: Tracking progress Reviewing progress Reporting progressWeek 7 Recap PMBOK 4.5PerformIntegratedChangeControl10 Reviewing changerequests Approving changes Managing changes to: Deliverables Documents PM plan baselinesSource: PMBOK 5th Ed.Week 7 Recap Activities for Week 8 PMBOK Chapters 3.7, 4.6, & 12.4; Kerzner Chapter 9, 11.19-11.21, & 19.10 &Appendix E; Directing with PRINCE2 Chapters 9; Managing with PRINCE2 Chapters 17 & 18. Continue working on Audit & TerminationAssignment Due Friday (on Moodle)11Why do Plans Fail?Why do plans fail? Un-realistic plans too much to do in too little time Budget estimation was poor Corporate strategic goals not understood Planning based on insufficient data Planning itself was not systematic Staffing requirements, objectives and milestones are unknown Estimates are used as project guesses, not on historical data or standards Estimating not done properly due to time constraints Skill gaps Staff retention staff shuffled in and out of projects Organisational structure Stakeholder interest (not supportive or on the fence) Communication breakdowns And so .Why do we stop a project? Achievement of objectives Poor planning Better alternatives are identified Company changes interest or direction Time and cost are exceeded Key personnel depart the organisation Complex problems outweigh resources available Poor relationship between people Low morale Lack of commitment Low productivity Reassignment of personnel Lack of adequate documentationProject Phaseouts and Transfers Kerzner (2013) states that project closure should followparticular disciplines and procedures with the objectivesof: Effectively brining the project to closure according to agreedupon contractual requirements Preparing for transition of the project to the operational phase (ortransition to the next project phase/stage) Analyse overall project performance Closing the project office releasing personnel and resources Identifying and persuing follow-on business16Source: PMBOK 5th Ed.17PMBOK: Closing Process Group Processes performed to conclude all activitiesacross all PM Process groups to formallycomplete the: Project Phase Contract18Source: PMBOK 5th Ed. Also establishespremature closeof a projectPMBOK: Closing Process Group What happens at project or phase closure? Acceptance By customer Sponsor Post project / implementation reviews Phase-end reviews Lessons learned are documented Update organisational process assets Archive project documents Add to historical data Close procurement activities ensuring contracts/agreements areterminated Project team member assessments Release of project resources19PMBOK 4.6 Close Project of Phase20Source: PMBOK 5th Ed.PMBOK 4.6 Close Project of Phase How do we do it? Tools and Techniques: Expert Judgement Ensure project/phase is performed to the appropriatestandard Experts can include those such as other PMs in thecompany, the PMO and professional/technical staff andassociations Meetings amongst team members and stakeholdersthat cover reviews, lessons learned, closeout, usergroups etc. Analytical Techniques such as Regression and trend analysis21Contract Closure Performed by the contract administrator Verifies the work and deliverables are accepted by thebuyer Administrative closure then follows: Documented verification that outputs are accepted by the buyer Debriefing and documenting the sellers performance Identify scope for improvement in potential future contracts Archive documentation Lessons learned review and identify best practices22PMBOK 12.4 Close Procurements23Source: PMBOK 5th Ed.PMBOK 12.4 Close Procurements Includes activities such as: Finalising open claims Updating records to reflect final results Archiving information for future use (e.g. next project) Early termination of a contract can result from: Mutual agreement (buyer and seller) Default from one party24PMBOK 12.4 Close Procurements How do we do it? Tools and Techniques: Procurement Audits Structured review Identify successes and failures Procurement Negotiations Settlement of outstanding issues, claims, disputes Arbitration might be required if disputes cannot be settled Keeping records in a system25PRINCE2 Closure26Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Closure Managing a Stage Boundary Enables the project board to be provided with sufficient information to: Review the success of the current stage Approve the next stage Review the updated PM plan Confirm business case justification Acceptance of risks Closing a Project Provide a fixed point at which acceptance for the project is confirmed Recognise objectives have been achieved (baseline or approvedchanges) Project has nothing more to contribute27PRINCE2 Managing a Stage Boundary What is theobjective? What are theactivities?28Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Managing a Stage Boundary Objectives: Assure the Project Board that all products in the stage are completed andapproved Prepare the plan for the next stage Review documents (initiation, business case, plans etc..) Provide information to the project board to assess continued viability ofthe project (inc. risks) Record any lessons learned or information that can help subsequentstages or other projects Request authorisation to commence the next stage in the project For Exceptions: Prepare exception plans as directed by the board Seek approval to replace the project/stage plan with an exception plan29PRINCE2 Managing a Stage Boundary Activities30Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Managing a Stage Boundary Activities31Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Managing a Stage Boundary Activities32Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Managing a Stage Boundary Activities33Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Managing a Stage Boundary Activities34Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Managing a Stage Boundary Activities35Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Managing a Stage Boundary Activities36Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Managing a Stage Boundary Activities37Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Managing a Stage Boundary Activities38Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Managing a Stage Boundary Activities39Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Closing a Project What is the objective? What are the activities?Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009 40PRINCE2 Closing a Project Objectives: Verify products are accepted by users Review performance against baselines Assess benefits that have been realised Update forecasts of remaining benefits Provisions are in place to address any open risks41PRINCE2 Closing a Project42Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Closing a Project43Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Closing a Project44Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Closing a Project45Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Closing a Project46Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Closing a Project47Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Closing a Project48Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Closing a Project49Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Closing a Project50Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Closing a Project51Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Closing a Project52Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Closing a Project53Source: Managing PRINCE2, AXELOS 2009PRINCE2 Authorising Project Closure The Project Board must give authorisation toclose a project Confirm handover and acceptance Approve the End Project reports Approve the Benefits Review plan54Project Success What is it? What does it look like? How to we achieve it? Predicting project success PM effectiveness Expectations Lessons learned Best practicesExcellence in ProjectManagement can be defined as acontinuous stream ofsuccessfully managed projects.IMMATURITY MATURITY Company Variables Internal Metrics Culture Work flowProject Variables Time Cost Performance Cust. Relations Project Variables Time Cost Performance Cust. RelationsThe Road To Maturity:Defining SuccessSource: Kernzer 2013Successful Actions Insist on the right to select key project team members. Select key team members with proven track records in their fields. Develop commitment and a sense of mission from the outset. Seek sufficient authority and a project organizational form. Coordinate and maintain a good relationship with the client, parent,and team. Seek to enhance the publics image of the project. Have key team members assist in decision making and problemsolving.Successful Actions Develop realistic cost, schedule, and performance estimates andgoals. Have backup strategies in anticipation of potential problems. Provide a team structure that is appropriate, yet flexible and flat. Go beyond formal authority to maximize influence over people andkey decisions. Employ a workable set of project planning and control tools. Avoid over-reliance on one type of control tool. Stress the importance of meeting cost, schedule, and performancegoals. Give priority to achieving the mission or function of the end-item. Keep changes under control. Seek to find ways of assuring job security for effective project teammembers.Variables For Project Success Predicting project success is one of the most difficult tasks facingthe project manager. According to Kerzner most project managers look only at time, costand performance. These parameters do not necessary identifywhether or not the project was successfully managed although thedeliverable was achieved. Internal project success is often measured by the actions of threegroups: the project manager and team the parent organization the client organizationThe Parent Organisation A willingness to coordinate efforts A willingness to maintain structural flexibility A willingness to adapt to change Effective strategic planning Rapport maintenance Proper emphasis on past experience External buffering Prompt and accurate communications Enthusiastic support Identification to all concerned parties that the project does, in fact,contribute to parent capabilitiesTop Management Expectationsof Project Manager Assume total accountability for the success or failure to provideresults Provide effective reports and information Provide minimum organizational disruption during the execution of aproject Present recommendations, not just alternatives Have a capacity to handle most interpersonal problems Demonstrate a self-starting capacity Demonstrate growth with each assignmentProject Management Expectationsof Top Management Provide clearly defined decision channels Take actions on requests Facilitate interfacing with support departments Assist in conflict resolution Provide sufficient resources/charter Provide sufficient strategic/long-range information Provide feedback Give advice and stage-setting support Define expectations clearly Provide protection from political infighting Provide the opportunity for personal and professional growthProject Team Expectations oftheir Project Manager Assist in the problem-solving process by coming up with ideas Provide proper direction and leadership Provide a relaxed environment Interact informally with team members Stimulate the group process Facilitate adoption of new members Reduce conflicts Defend the team against outside pressure Resist changes Act as the group spokesperson Provide representation with higher managementProject Manager Expectationsof The Team Demonstrate membership self-development Demonstrate the potential for innovative and creative behavior Communicate effectively Be committed to the project Demonstrate the capacity for conflict resolution Be results oriented Be change oriented Interface effectively and with high moraleTeam Member Expectationsand their needs expected to be filled A sense of belonging Interest in the work itself Respect for the work being done Protection from political infighting Job security and gob continuity Potential for career growthBest Practices Commercial or professional procedures that are accepted orprescribed as being the correct and most effective Best practices can be found anywhere within or outside of anorganisationSource: Kernzer 2013Activities for Week 8 PMBOK Chapters 3.7, 4.6, & 12.4; Kerzner Chapter 9, 11.19-11.21, & 19.10 &Appendix E; Directing with PRINCE2 Chapters 9; Managing with PRINCE2 Chapters 17 & 18. Continue working on Audit & TerminationAssignment Due Friday (on Moodle)68
PPMP 20010: Executing and Closing Projects
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