Introduction [CITATION sot18 l 2057 ]Severe flooding affected the South Indian state named Kerala due to unusual high rainfall occurred during the monsoon season in August, 2018. It is identified that this was the worst flooding in a nearly century. The main causes behind the floods in Kerala includes Heavy rainfall, Low pressure, large discharge from dams, landslides. Number of people died due to this floods in Kerala are 500, where 15 people are missing and almost millions of people were evacuated mainly form the Pandanad, Chengannur, Aluva, Kuttanad. Fourteen states of the Kerala on red alert due to floods. One-sixth population of the Kerala were had been affected directly by the floods as per the government of Australia this year. Level 3 calamity was declared by the government of Kerala. On August 8, 2018, 257 percent of the usual rainfall falling in Kerala occurred on the mid night evening resulting in filling dam capacity in the initial day of rainfall. In the first day, 310 mm of rainfall was received Kerala, at the southern tip of India, is a popular state among the international tourists and well known for its tropical hills, scenic green landscapes, and beaches. However, this year it was in the news for being battered by torrential floods and record monsoons. In India, floods are the most frequent and common of all natural disasters and the Kerala floods in recent time is the most striking example. The annual precipitation, in India, is about 4,000 Billion Cubie Meter, and the seasonal monsoons account for 3,000 BCM out of the above (Mohapatra. & Singh 2003, pp. 131). Unequal seasonal distribution and temporal and spatial variations of the rainfall in India shows frequent departures from the normal. Different movement agencies have shown that the flood-prone area in India is increasing dramatically. According to the Central Water Commission (CEC), the annual average area due to floods is about 7.563 million ha. Between 1953 -2000, floods have impacted about 33 million persons (Mohapatra. & Singh 2003, pp. 131). With a steady rise in population, it is only apparent that the number of people affected due to floods is now much beyond the above-given numbers. The main reason behind floods in India in1ude riverbank erosion, inadequate capacity to contain high flows within riverbanks and silting of riverbeds. Other factors include landslides, obstruction of flows and poor natural drainage in the flood-prone area as stated by Mohapatra. & Singh (2003 pp. 133). Aim of the Research The main of aim this research is to provide the resilience building in flood in Kerala. The report aims to provide the factors or the reasons responsible for the occurrences of the floods in Kerala in context of construction or civil engineering. Research objectives:- In this research, secondary as well as primary resources of data are investigated in order to perform the qualitative analysis. The report also analyzes the types of materials used in the buildings of the Kerala. This research provides the different types of building practices used in Kerala. This clear understanding of the building practices helps to identify the root causes of building damages in Kerala which are caused by floods. This research also helps to analyze the material of building damages in Kerala due to floods. Due to all such root causes, there is need to recover the damages of the buildings, therefore for this purpose a technology based solution is provided in this research. Research Gap Various authors have performed research on the factors responsible for the flood in the Kerala or other regions of India. Along with this various effects are also identified by the researchers in their research but in this research the technology that will be used for awarding the damages to the building is providedknown as stack Technology. Till now no research has been performed in the implementation of Jack technology in the flood prone areas for preventing the building damages and providing building resilience to the flood prone areas. Therefore, in this research a technology that is named as Jack technology is provided with the help of which the level of the buildings can be raised above the road level which will help in preventing the floods to enter into the houses. Abundant work is done by the researchers in context house lifting services which helps in providing the features such as credibility, flexibility and accuracy to the houses and the flood prone areas. Various case studies are also presented by researchers on house lifting service, roof lifting service, shops lifting service, lifting building, house on beam as well as jacks (Niu, 2004). The steps for shifting the temple to new place with the help of jacks in which the whole temple was lifted from its base and the whole of the temple was transformed to side jacks and I-beams. This technology is selected to provide building resilience of floods in Kerala due to cost effectiveness of this technique (Patel, 2018). This technique can be used in the flood prone areas as it helps in saving lavish amount on renovation of building and utilizing the valuable time. The design as well as development of the Jack technology but does not provided the implementation steps in flood prone area. application of the electric charge is provided in various field such as lifting automobiles from the ground surface (Sommerlad, 2018). This research provides the root causes of building damages in the Kerala which are not provided by any other researcher in their study. Along with this the types of buildings as a list building practices or structures that are implemented in Kerala are analysed along with the statistics of building damagesdue to floods in Kerala. Research questions RQ.1: What kind of building and building practices or structures are implemented in Kerala? RQ.2: What are the material of building that damaged due to floods in Kerala? RQ.3: What types of building got damaged due to floods in Kerala? RQ.4: what are the root causes of building damages in Kerala? RQ.5: Which technology can be adopted for preventing building damages in Kerala? RQ.6: How they got damaged due to floods in Kerala? RQ.7: Why they got damaged due to floods in Kerala? RQ.8: What type of material should be used to avoid floods in Kerala? Literature-case study FLOOD RESELIENCE MEASURES: In 2013, Zurich launched a global program to enhance flood resilience. Risk reduction even before the flood occurs is its main focus. To reduce the effect of floods before occurring or after occurring, firstly proper analysis about the level of risk is to be noted to take actions accordingly. The Environment Agency has maps which demonstrate the risk from rivers, seas and in England, even from groundwater. This need to be done with proper planning and process of understanding is in few steps namely Understand the risk its frequency, depth, duration, type, level of impact etc Initial precautions money required, citizens and media cooperation, support from other countries, evacuation possibility The property survey assessment on how much property may get effected, its impact on individuals and on the government, loss of public property etc Fig: Combined resistance and resilience measures Concrete is water resilient by its nature and suitable for being waterproof, water barriers, water resilient. The amount of water that it controls depends on its quality and construction. Flood resilience construction of new buildings is also another technique used. Water exclusion strategy, or resistance strategy, for low depth flooding, is designed to prevent flood water entering the building and also minimise the impact of flood waters and also give occupants more time to relocate ground floor contents. Ground supported concrete slabs of min 100mm thick can prevent loss of structural integrity due to uplift pressures due to water ingress from the ground. Clear cavity or solid masonry walls offer better resilience than filled or part-filled cavity walls. Water entry strategy for greater flood depths in the building once the water has entered and its to reduce its impact. Concrete blocks dry more quickly than Air Crete blocks. Internal cement renders to be avoided to prevent effective drying. Insite and precast has low permeability which result in minimal damage and can be used in water exclusion strategy or water entry strategy in order to incur structural damage due to excessive differential pressures. A floating house concept was developed by Factor Architected in Holland. The two story houses built on 70t watertight concrete box which provides buoyancy in times of flooding and also provides additional living space. When floods occur the buildings can raise up to 15ft by floating. 1) what kind of building and building practices or structures are implemented in Kerala? Flood in Kerala (Galderisi and Treccozzi, 2017) provides Green strategy framework for flood resilient cities. From past several years there is uncontrolled growth of the cities caused loss of numerous permeable soils. And along with this change of climate is one of primary challenge for the city. The Soil sealing reduced the ability of the soil to absorb the rainwater which makes in compromising the capability of city to manage and control the impacts of rainstorms triggered by the change of the climate consequently which results in the risk of flood disasters and as well as many other disasters. The main aim of this research on the basic key role of green infrastructures. from the analysis of this research it is concluded that to reduce the impact off the flood hazardous there is need of minimize the impervious surface in the compact city, reduce soil sealing so that fluvial ecosystem can be recovered. And various nature based solutions for the enhancement of the urban resilience is also proposed in this research such as ecosystem based approach for the reduction of disaster can be used from the prevention form various hazardous. As the mutual relationship between the humans and eco system requires considering natural phenomena as dynamic interacting processing. However, design of natural based strategy is used for reducing the impact of disaster such as floods. (Thirumaran, 2018) analysed thegreen building Technologies in Indian Vernacular architecture of Kerala. Green buildings are considered as majorparadigm for the society for past few years because such buildings focuses on energy conservation as well as low environmental impact designs which is the main requirement of the hour. The influence and the use of technologies are provided which have been termed in contemporary world as green building technologies in Indian Vernacular architecture. The green technologies are investigated which are their deployed in the Vernacular houses of Kerala that are built with the help of local materials and traditional construction and methods. These technologies are identified and analysed on the basis of their spatial organization, site planning, building envelope specifications and material specifications. By understanding the climatic and cultural responsive architectureused in the past will help to reinvent the link between the green buildings of the modern and their Vernacular architecture is used in the past. Green buildings mainly focus on 5 areas which includes energy, material, site, water and occupant comfort. vernacular architectural is a style of architecture that takes into account all these needs andrequirements of the nature, residence, construction materials. most of the traditional buildings in Kerala are built as per theVastu Shastra. And the residential buildings and no exception. As per the structural and special considerations the Vernacular residential forms of Kerala can be categorized into fourwhich includes rectangular Ishaped shelter that mainly belongs to the tribal people, known as Ekshala with granary (Ara), traditional Courtyard house known as nalukettu. The most common found Vernacular residential building in the Kerala is the rectangular hall Ishaved shelter which is modified by expansion, Extension and repetition. The house is divided into two outer and inner zones where the inner zone houses the private spaces. Rectangular single hall building with granary is the type of architecture which consists of veranda that becomes the outer zone and the inner core consists of granary, kitchen and other functional rooms. In such type of architecture houses are sometimes constructed as an annex to the main house. Traditional Courtyard houses is basic form of Keralaalso known as nalukettu consists of four blocks that are built around an open courtyard. It might have a square or a rectangular plan with high pitched roof as a risk Courtyardleft open.on the basis of the importance andsize of the family8 blocks and 16 blocks are made out of the repeated modulus ofnalukettu. The traditional Courtyard house known as nalukettu in alathur and Palakkadare selected and variousgreen Technologies which are used includes the material specifications, building envelope specifications, site planning and spatial organization. 2)What types of building got damaged due to floods in Kerala? The architecture of Kerala Architecture is of vernacular styles based on primitive circular, square or rectangular shapes. The houses are typically made of stones, timber, palm leaves and clay. Roofing is ridged and supported by wooden brackets and it is interesting to note that no nails are used and the roof frame is supported by pillars on walls (Faseehun, 2015). As one can know that the way the houses are constructed in Kerala and the material used to construct them is not sturdy and offers no support or resilience in case of surging storms and heavy flooding. This is the reason why the recent floods in Kerala have destroyed its vital infrastructure and brought life to a complete halt. Houses, roads and other buildings were completely flooded and destroyed. It is seen that most houses in Kerala are load-bearing structures and are made of bricks and laterite. There are no frames, and the house is covered with a large tiled roof and the tiles on the roof added to the problem as the tiles add to the weight, and the tiled pavements did not allow any absorption of water by the soil (Ramnani, 2018). The load-bearing structures made of bricks or laterite when subjected to water lose their strength significantly. The foundations of houses in Kerala are not strong as they are made of marine clay. Kochi airport is a good example of poor planning as it is built on paddy fields and wetlands. The airport extends up to the banks of the river. The airport is often flooded following monsoon rains in Kerala (Nagendra, 2018). The spread of high-rise buildings on hill slopes has weakened the soil. Thus, the unplanned development has made the region more susceptible and vulnerable to flash floods and landslides (Nagendra, 2018). Rebuilding homes and infrastructure would require a new urban architectural and planning vocabulary. Reinforced concrete structures should be built on stilts (Ramnani, 2018) The type of materials which are used for constructing various architectural designs vary across different regions of Kerala. But the major materials which are used obstructing the buildings includes granite stone for foundations, laterite stone, clay roof tiles, bamboo and wood. In some situations, lime mortar that is strengthened with the vegetablejuices can be used for plastering and mud mortar can be used for binding the elements where mud is also used to make walls clay tiles etc. Since the granite is also used as one of the most significant materials in the Vernacular architecture of the Kerala roughness of granite stones helps in reducing thereflectivity. All such types of materials as per the GRIHA code criteria falls under the category of the low environmental impact materials. 3)Why they got damaged due to floods in Kerala? As the houses in Kerala rest on weak soil and foundation are made of local natural building materials like timber, palm leaves and clay, they are not flood proof at all. What makes 2018 more devastating is because of the lower capacity of the state to deal with extreme floods. Illegal stone quarrying, mining on river beds and changing drainage patterns have raised the vulnerability and worst the situation of the current floods (Tripathi, 2018). Environmentalists identify the use of land for high rises construction in the catchment areas of rivers and river-beds as the main reason behind the disaster (Dutta, 2018). 4) What are the material of buildings that damaged due to floods in Kerala? [CITATION Ind15 l 2057 ]In Kerala which is signed on the basis of the local needs availability of construction materials and reflecting local cut traditional Type of architectural designs is mainly constructed by skilled local Builders. The most common building materials used for construction in Kerala granite stone blocks, laterite, mud, bamboo, wood, lime mortar, coconut palm leaves and clay roofing tile. Laterite stones are used for improving the strength of the walls as they are. Completely exposed to moisture as well as sun. Timber which is theabundant material in the state of Kerala is another most important structure element. Apart fromthis construction materials Steak and Rose wood are popular hardwood used in construction. Girls are the most commonly visible unifying feature of Kerala architecture. Leaves paved on wooden crosses are most elegant and commonroofing material. the availability of the granite that is a strong and durablestone is used mainly to the Highlands and marginally to some Hilly zones. Palm leaves are still used in effective manner for catching the rules as well as for making the partitioning of the walls. Due to the limitations of the building materials a multi model approach of the construction was developed in Kerala and due to their limitations of building materials a multimodal approach of construction was developed in Kerala. The indigenous adoption of the available raw materials for architecture became the dominant feature of the Kerala style. 5)How they got damaged due to floods in Kerala? Floods leave an immediate impact on the environment and the communities. The consequences and damage rely on the vulnerability of the natural and built environments. In Kerala, houses have been damaged entirely due to recent floods. The structures have collapsed in the heavy rain with the roofs giving in and water entering inside. All possessions have been destroyed (Rajendran, 2018). The houses were partly or wholly submerged, and many electric poles and trees have been uprooted and fell on the ground or the houses. Most of the buildings and houses have been fully or partially damaged in the rains. Landslides have cut off the cities, towns, and villages from each other. The coastal areas and cities must develop flood tolerance and faster reorganization. Better evacuations and flood warning systems can lower the economic losses. Ecological wisdom is essential for those living-with-floods lifestyles (Liao, Le, & Nguyen 2016, pp. 70). 6)What are the root causes of building damages in Kerala? (Sommerlad, 2018)States that there are various root causes of flood which could be as a result of the human cause or even because of natural cause. Natural causes that are responsible for the floods includes in form of heavy or torrential rains or rain Storm. Floods can also be caused due to Ocean storm and tidal waves usually along the coast the following are the human causes which are identified responsible for the flood in various regions which includes burst water main pipes, dams fill and the dam burst which leaves to floods. There are various forms of plants that occurs in the different areas which includes coastal flooding, flash floods, river flooding, urban flooding urban flooding etc. Coastal flooding usually occurs in the low lying belt of freshwater swamp and mangrove along coast river floods. It is not strange to analyze that Kerala is state with faces heavy rainfall during the monsoon but incessant rains in the past cosmetic reading across the state hundreds of thousands people become homeless and more than 150000 people logged in the relief camps. One of the major reason that Kerala faced floods is that Indias Western coast receives above average rainfall on an account of sustained low pressure conditions. But other factors such as change in the land use patterns as well as climatic change also contributed to the device station that occurred in the Kerala. It is analysed that use of land is also responsible for making some of the regions of Kerala more prone to floods as well as landslides. Another main reason for the occurrence of the floods in Kerala is due to global warming. It is analysed that global warming is also responsible for the increase in the rainfall intensity during the monsoon. One of the major factor responsible for the floods in Kerala includes the human intervention that is changing the face of the Western Ghats. The mountain range is responsible for breaking down the cloud formations as well at dissipating rainfall. The climate change particularly rainfall is a contributory factor that leads to the floods. Along with the climate change there are various other factors which further enhance the flooding. Floods are purely manmade and what consequences of the damages caused by man to the environment. 7)What type of material should be used to avoid floods in Kerala? Kerala needs to rethink on its strategies and use of materials for constructing buildings and homes. Government policymakers, the environmentalist and property developers must come together to build flood proof houses along the coastal areas of Kerala. Climate change is raising sea levels, and there are plenty of examples of coastal areas that are at risk of climate-driven flooding. The challenge lies in how to prepare people and lower the enormous impact on risk levels. Worldwide fatalities from coastal flooding are anticipated to cross $1 trillion annually by 2050 (Daigle & Singh 2018, pp. 25). Asias fast-growing coastal megacities like Mumbai, Dhaka, and Manila face severe threats in the future because of heavier rainfall, floods and storm surges. However, one can build stronger homes that are flood and weatherproof with the use of advanced materials and clever architecture (Murphy 2017, pp.57). For example, a strong foundation can keep the homes safe from shrinking into the ground. Vented design allows the floodwater to pass underneath the structure of the house. Property developers in megacities should be aware of the sea level rise and the risks involved. Future-proof homes can be built by placing them on stilts and surrounding them with water-absorbing gardens (Daigle & Singh 2018, pp.29). Builders must learn from the past lessons and get better at resilient construction by using high-performance materials as well as improved methods for construction. Modern methods and improved technologies can help build sturdier houses. Froe example, placing anchors at the foundation stage, using advanced weatherproof tapes and fluid-applied sealant for roofs and secure window and door protection can undoubtedly result in a better and stronger home (Cushman, 2017). It is essential to use water-tolerant materials when constructing the houses. A closer observation of the flood adapting strategies by the Vietnameses shows them living in stilt houses. The earlier stilt houses had thatched roofs and bamboo or wooden floors and walls. Granite and concrete stilts are getting commoner today, and the roofs and walls are made of metal. Gaps in the floor ensure adequate ventilation within the house (Liao, Le, & Nguyen 2016, pp. 72). Those gaps also help to lower the force of the flood waves during stormy weather and allow natural drainage of water. A house should protect its occupants, even against the weather extremes. Flooding, fire, and hurricanes often plague different parts of the world and damage dwellings and properties. The focus must be on how to reverse the environmental and ecological damage as well as on making stronger structures. There are essential lessons to be learned here. 8)Which technology can be adopted for preventing building damages in Kerala? Overview of Jack Technology (Vaghmash, 2018) Jack technology helps to reduce the number of risks related disaster and it is the most significant and cost effective technology that will help to reduce the number of issues related to disaster at multiple places. The repair and maintenance of the projects or constructional sites can be done in an effective manner with the usage of this technology. There are multiple kind of jacks that can be used to repair the damages. It is a perfect example of human efforts and technology that will provide number of benefits to the complex projects. The mechanical jack can be used for repairing the number of sites and motor vehicle in more effective manner as compare to other technologies. (Makwana, 2018) states that the if the level of the house is below the street level then, with the help of the new technology known as Jack technology, the level of the house can be raised. With the help of this technology the damage caused due to the floods to the houses can be eradicated as due to low level of the houses the sewage as well as the flood water regularly flows into the houses. There are hundreds of homes which could be saved if new houses lifting technology proves a successful. The amount of cost required to use this technology is approximately half of the cost required to rebuild the house. [CITATION MDD16 l 2057 ]Steps of lifting using jack technology:- 1) Clear span house lifting 2) No wooden cribbing 3) Soil should be excavated first and perform the process on structure Design 4)18(feet) height maximum to be increase for houses 5) House should be inspected always in each and every step when process is going on 6) No live load should be present when the work is going on 7) Inserting the jacks, and at a time we should lift all the jacks Jack Technology for house lifting Retrofitting methods are one of the most common method of elevating house tour required to decide flood protection elevation. The living area is above on when a house is elevated properly. Various elevation techniques are available which includes lifting the House and building a new or extending the existing Foundation below it and the other one involved leaving the house and place and either building and elevated Road within the house for adding a new upper story. most of them masonry veneer, most frames, masonry houses areseparated from the foundations during the elevation process and a raised on hydraulic Jacks which are hurt by temporary supports while extending the foundation. The foundation remains exposed to the flooding and the living I was raised only. This technique works efficiently for the houses originally built on the crawl space, open foundations and placements. When the houses are lifted with this technique the extended on your Foundation can consist of either continuous walls or separate columns piers, pilings etc. It is difficult to build the masonry houses primarily because of their construction, design and weightbut it is possible to liftsearch houses (Emberga, 2014). Elevation after technique is used for masonry veneer, masonry houses on slab on grade foundations. Insert houses this life forms both the floor of the house and becomes major part of the foundation (FUKUOKA, KON and OKAMURA, 2007). It is easier to elevate this houses if the house is left attached to the slab and are lifted together after lifting the slab as well house together a new Foundation is constructed below the slab. For themasonry houseson slab on Grade Foundation it is analysed that some of the house owners find easier to use one of the two alternatives of elevation techniques in which the house is left on the original Foundation. One technique involves removal of roof and extending the walls of the houses upward along with replacing of roof and then building a new elevated living area inside. Where is the second alternative is not used as much in which the living space is moved to an existing or newly constructed upper floor. For storage, parking andassessed to the house the abundantly enclosed area is used. For the elevation of the walls below the flood protection elevation this approach is suitable for the masonry construction that is Flat resistance naturally but not for the frame construction which could only be damaged by flood waters. Jack technology is used for house lifting which is the best and effective technique for avoiding building damages due to floods. Literature review In order to proceed further for providing the best technology to avoid the building damages due to floods, the literature of various authors in context of Jack technology is studied. Selection of building area Particular building is selected in the flood prone area which is below the road level in order to prevent that building from the floods. Investigation of building The statistics regarding the building is studied such as the height, dimensions of walls of the building etc. Finding level required to fit After investigating the dimensions or other details associated with the building to be raised above the road level, the level up to which the building is require to be raised is found. This is because the road level might be raised in future. Therefore, safety against the floods it must life the building or a house one feet above the road level. Finding number of jacks required For finding the jacks requirement, the total load acting on the building which includes self-weight is required to be calculated. As per the load calculation, the number of jacks can be calculated. The requirements of the jacks are raised if the load of the building is high. Step by Step process for Lifting house with jack technology Following flow chart helps in explaining the processes which are required to be carried out for house of building raising. Evaluation of Existing foundation for determining support to extended house/building calculation of house or building Turning off utility services and disconnecting utility lines Excavating round the foundation for installing the lifting beams Raising house with jacks opening for flood water extended foundation wall to desired height removal of jack and backfilling floor finishing and reconnecting utility services Evaluation of existing foundation Initially, in order to implement the jack technology for lifting the houses or any other building in order to prevent the damaged to be caused due to floods, the foundation of the existing building is evaluated for determining that whether the implementation of jack technology will support the extended house or not. Therefore, for such reason the survey of the residential buildings is conducted before starting the process of house lifting. It is necessary to study the existing foundation and the member of building that requires the support before the lifting process of building with jack technology. Load calculation: Load calculation of the building or the house in the flood prone area is done for obtaining the number of jacks required to be applied for lifting the weight of the building and then the calculated number of jacks are applied to the area of building. For this purpose, the load of building is divided with the capacity of the jack that provides the number of jacks required for lifting the building. Turning off the utility services and disconnecting the utility lines: Prior to the lifting process of the building with the help of jack technology it is necessary to disconnect the supplies of the building which includes the gas connection, water supply, electricity connection and supply etc. It is necessary to do so in order to avoid the interruption in the work and in order to ensure the safety of people working. Excavating round the foundation The support to the weak members is given for avoiding the falling of members down during the process of lifting as the safety precautions for ensuring the safety of the building as well as workers engaged in the process of house or building lifting. Generally, the support of one beam is given as the supports. Initially the excavation is done near the walls in order to implement the jacks. The jacks are implemented below the ground beam or provide the support of the steel beams. Raising the house or building with jacks The jacks are implemented in the excavation area, therefore the jacks are applied and the house is lifted by jacking the jacks simultaneously. After this, the jacks are removed and then the parallel brick masonry is implemented for supporting the lifting of the building or house. Openings for the flood water An important part of the building resilience with jack technology is to install the openings in the foundation walls but not above 1 foot above the ground in order to ensure that the flood water can enter and equalizes the external as well as internal hydrostatic pressures. These openings are created only by filling the I-beam holes partially. Extending foundation The brick masonry is performed for acting as the buildings foundation as it helps in providing the support to the whole building which further helps in providing increase in the height of the building. Removing jack and backfilling After the brick masonry is completed the jacks are removed which can have the ability to bear or sustain the load of the building or house. In the plinth area, the murdrum and the pebbles are filled in the building. The backfilling of the sand must be compacted in proper manner for supporting the floor load of the building. Finishing of floor and reconnecting of utility services The flooring is done after the removal of jacking and compacted soil filtering. The supply connections removed earlier are connected after the flooring is completed. Then the cracks are also filled when the house is lifted which is done with the cement grouting. In the jack technology implementation, the demolition of the building is not including for the estimating the new construction because, the scrap value is not exact instead is assumed equal to the demolition charge. Therefore, the cost of the demolition is not included. The cost which is estimated in the house lifting with jack technology includes the flooring, brick masonry work, base material filling and plinth filling. The cost also includes the cost of filling cracks etc during lifting of the house. Urban development practices and technologies using floating Technologies States that flooding is increasing globally and is becoming as a challenge due to climate change as well as Urban Development practices (Delgrange and Adeyeye, 2018). in the United Kingdom it is projected that number of people which are at high risk of flooding could rise from 1.3 million to 3.4 million by 2080. and it is analyzed that almost 400,00 homes as well as 75000 businesses in England are liable to flooding annually. Useful information on the flood risk provided by the environment agency of the UK for each location. Such information is supported with the differentguide by the local councils on how to get help during the flooding and how to prepare for it. The impacts of the flooding are typically classified as monetary or economic terms or non-tangible example: wellbeing, loss of life, direct or indirect a degree of damage.most of the materials of the buildings get the deteriorate at different rates with prolonged contact with water they are four factors including water rise rate, duration of immersion, transportation ofcontaminantsis considered as important while exploring the building impact. moreover, it is analyzed that the degradation of the materials is impacted by the duration of materials in contact with water. More the diffusion of the water in the walls by capillary phenomena will be there due to longer floods which leads to swelling or hydrolysis. In this the decision support tool kit is proposed in order to raise the Awareness of the level of risk flooding in the existing base environment Agencies flood zones in real time which are linked to probability of the event. Moreover, the decision support tool kit helps in encouraging the anticipatory action by home owners are the residents why are prevented retrofit work instead of post preventing the repair. Floating technology It is a technology which presents a major breakthrough for the British Architects sometimes have been investigating the ways in order to mitigate the risk houses which are located in the flood prone areas.the main motive of this particular Technologies is to build a design an entire building up in its dog and float that particular building can be protected from the flood.by the help of this particular technology in the entire house will rest on the ground on the pics foundations during the situation of flood in tire building will be designed in the manner to rise up in its dock and float. This situation is possible when a wet dock is comprised of retaining walls and base slab that helps to sit underneath the home (Habibi, 2015).in case when the flood occurs the dock will fill with water and the house will rise accordingly. by the help of this particular Technology the house will be designed highly insulated and low energy building which will help in saving water and also help in saving energy devices. to build a house with the use of this particular Technology you would cost 20-25 % more than a similar sized house. the use of this particular Technology will help in identifying the various ways in which the construction industry can tackle the various emissions that are being rising due to CO2and helps in the adoption of climatic change in the situation like flood risk.it is one of the metal which helps in reducing or preventing the detrimental effects of flood and water (Habibi, 2015). It helps in reducing the effects of flood waters or high water level that are caused due to the floods. Traditional technology is nothing new but it is a traditional floating,which help The villages in common deltas along the riverside to protect against the flood. The use of this particular Technology will help the large community that are holistically to prevent from the flood as well as the climatic change which can occur anytime along the riverside. It also acts as a multifunctional landscape which helps in controlling the surface water flooding or act as large flood storage areas which helps in preventing all the buildings from any of the disaster (Habibi, 2015). AmphibiousTechnology Amphibioustechnology is another technology which helps in preventing the various houses from the flood. the use of this technology helps in offering a solution to all the flood prone areas. The use of this particular Technology allows residents enjoy waterfront living during a flood. by the help of this particular Technology the houses are built in low lying land which is adjacent to the bodies of water at almost double the rate of building which is outside the zones. In this technology the homes are built in the manner that it floats when the level of water increases and it will help in preventing the damage which is caused due to the flood.the house which is constructed by the help of this particular technology is similar to ship hull as the base of the house is a wet dock which is constructed of the pre Mabel concrete so that the incoming water mainly forces the home to float upwards (Nilubon, Veerbeek and Zevenbergen, 2016). Four fixed 8-foot-tall Steel poles are well planted above the areas of project to prevent the particular condition. It helps in guiding the responses house from the disasters. It also acts as an early warning system which helps in submerging the hose as the water level is increased. The construction of this home cost 20%more than conventional models which are used for the construction of the particular house. The use of this technology helps in expanding the strategy to a bigger scale so that the designers can security plan to build a second iteration of the house which will help in adapting the environmental change. In some of the cases the existing homes can beretrofitted with the functionalities of amphibious foundations in order to provide the people in flood prone areas list course alternative in order to move about their homes on eclipse. The use of this particular Technology will help in list down of the House on the ground during the conditions are normal. In case if the particular is being cost at that particular time the house floats on water that flows in the bath tub shaped form and will help all the people to save their life. why the use of this particular Technology all the houses are constructed in a bath tub shaped which helps to prevent from the flood which is being caused (Nilubon, Veerbeek and Zevenbergen, 2016). Flood Painting technology Flood risk management help in reducing the risk from the flood events to all the people located in the flood prone areas. Flood painting technology is one of the technology which can be used in order to construct and remember houses which are located in flood prone areas. The magnitude of this particular Technology helps in functioning as per the characteristics of a particular location. it helps in mitigating the potential impact of flood over the possibility of people and property and results to protect from the particular flood condition (Ying et al., 2004). The main risk is presented by the areas which are characterized without considering the mitigation strategy for the risk transfer. The use of this particular Technology will help in identifying and implementing measures to reduce the overall risk which helps in developing strategy as per the budget of the particular person and help in providing many benefits in regard to the measures that have to be taken while reducing the risk that is being faced due to the flood. in most of the flood prone areasthe main motive of people should be to focus on the flatterer strength rather than defence from the floods. one of the Civil Engineer has advised that the concreting floors must be replaced with the materials such as MDF and plaster board the use of this particular Technology will help with results in preventing the various houses from the floods. And the buildings must be constructed in a way that helps in preventing the flood damage. by the help of this particular Technologies all the building must be constructed above the flood levels which helps in lowering down the risks of the future disaster that can be caused due to the natural calamity which is being faced due to flood.by the help of this particular Technology more wetlands can be created which basically act as a sponge is also king of moisture which helps wooden areas to float over the water when the level of water is increased in the particular situation. The use of this particular Technology will help in reducing the impact of Climate Change on flooding according to the various conservation strategies that are being used by the management in order to protect from the flood (Ying et al., 2004). Jack technology Jack technology is one of the retrofitting method which is used for elevating the house which is required for the protection of front elevation. In this particular living area house is elevated properly with the help of various elevation techniques which are available and includes listing of the House and building and you are extending the existing Foundation. It basically involves leaving the house and place by proper adding a new upper story (Construction Innovation and Process Improvement, 2012). This particular elevation technique is used for masonry veneer, masonry houses on slab on Grade Foundation. the use of this particular Technology helps in inserting houses in the life forms for both the floors of the houses are termed as an essential part of the foundation. By the help of this particular Technology one can easily evaluate the house if the house is left attached to the slab and the lift it together after lifting the slab as well as house new Foundation can be constructed for the prevention of the flood which are being caused all the houses which are constructed by the help of this particular Technology can easily be evaluated by the help of slab which is attached and can be lifted together after lifting this lamp as well as on your Foundation or a building which is constructed below the slab. Jack technology is one of the technology which is mainly used for lifting, it is termed to be the best and effective technique which helps in avoiding the building damages that have been caused due to the floods. while making use of this particular Technology for all the masonry houses on slab sit is analysed that some of the house owners find it easy to make use of it. the use of this particular Technology involves removal of roof and extending the walls of the houses upward along with an alternative which helps the users to live in this page which is moved to an existing or a new constructed upper floor (Construction Innovation and Process Improvement, 2012). It helps in storing parking and also helps in assessing the other abundantly and closed activities which are used in the particular area. For the proper elevation of the walls the flood protection and Liberation approach is being used in this particular Technology for the prevention of any masonry constructionwhich helps in b flat resistance naturally but not involved in this frame construction which can easily be damaged by the flood water (Construction Innovation and Process Improvement, 2012). Massive underground: Flood Prevention technology Massive underground flood preventing technology is one of the effective technology which can be used for the protection of floods. It is termed that the depositing effects of global warming in the world leads to the extreme weather conditions in the world such as powerfultyphoons, monsoon rains, hurricanes and tropical cycloneswhich helps in causing the great damage to see particular city. massive underground is one of the technology which can be used for preventing the flood that basically occurs and most of the areas. The use of this particular Technology makes use of system which has 5 vertical shaft that are so tall and cavernous that a particular space could fit right in (Gao, Liu and Wang, 2013). The each of which is connected to a 10 m diameter helps in finishing a huge pressure adjusting tanks. The main purpose of this tank is too slow the incessant flow of rainwater which helps in proper maintaining of optimum water pressure in the system. The entire system which is used in this technology is at least 177 M long and is 478 M and breadth which is situated at least 22metres beneath the ground. The use of this particular system basically consists of a huge form which helps in controlling the level of the Potter and the pressure itself which is capable of the charging up to 200 cubic metres of water is second. It is found that controlling the volume of water with the flow rate is one of the essential process which is to be considered during the flood conditions. In some of the urban areas flooding is exacerbated as the amount of in previous ground cover the soil which normally absorb the water and helps in lowering down the level of the water (Gao, Liu and Wang, 2013). The use of this particular soil helps in decreasing the level of soil.flood control is one of the essential component of the climatic change which is adopted and resiliency efforts are necessary for controlling the flood conditions.it is also necessary to manage the urban flooding which helps in improving the public safety in the short-term and also helps in preparing for extreme weather events that can occur in the future. in the particular system which is implemented underground has large pump controls which are capable of dischargingup to 200 cubic metres of water per second. and the use of this technology will help in preventing the large particular building from damaging (Gao, Liu and Wang, 2013). States that in order to make the resonance operations the main solutions which can be implemented on the three levels of Urban Development project (Rode and Gralepois, 2017) in the floodPlains include flow through building, water storage and elevation.these are the solutions which are architecturaltranslation of the hydraulic prevention instructions.from the point of architecture, the planning is important in the concept of floating housing and amphibious housing. Where amphibious housing denotes the buildings which are fixed to the ground and connected to the network but can be lifted up as well as float even in the flooding event. for example, amphibious houses were created in the United States with the floor house project as well as in Bangladesh with lift house project. As per floating houses these are positioned on the platform which floats and provides the home thatpermanently floats on water. The Matraneighborhood interns entirely used a temporary river tributary in which all the urban designs were carried out depending on the credit parameter. In this the buildings are positioned in parallel to the river so that these buildings do not impede the flow of the water. It is stated that all the resilient urban designs are based on testing Technical Solutions in terms of keeping the things out of the water as well as safety of the people and property but still there is lot to be done in creating Urbanity with the water. Two features are provided by the town planning in the flood Paints which includes the relationship between the project as well as rules of flood prevention,whereas the other feature includes the place of state control alongside the contracting authority as well as project management but it is considered.but it is identified that these two features are still sources of conflict and research is required into legal, political and urban levels which will help in making possible not only to find the unique solution but also to adapt local configuration. Portal barrier technology can protect houses from flooding: CASE STUDY-1 Kerala lies on southwestern, Malabar Coast of India with humid tropical wet climate. It experienced the highest rainfall of 2346.3 mm instead of average 1649.55 mm according to India Meteorological Department. The rainfall was caused by a spell of low pressure over the region. Having nearly 41 rivers in Kerala the downpours became severe causing landslides and widespread flooding. Flood water has been 3-4.5m deep. Nearly 500 people lost their lives. Keralas commercial capital, Cochin was underwater to an extent. Severe affects caused to local plantations like tea, coffee, rubber, spices etc. Thousands of troops were deployed and Indias National Disaster Response Force (NDRF), Army, Navy, Airforce teams are immediately sent to the rescue. Other states in India supported Kerala with money, food, medicines, and clothing to the affected people. International support has also played its part. Fishermen in Kerala acted as saviors when hundreds decided to brave through flood-waters to venture into areas where even naval commandos could not reach. A control room was opened by the fisheries minister and coordinated rescue efforts with their vessels. Saving thousands of people with country single engine and double engine boats made them case study worthy. Most of the regions impacted by this monsoon were once classified as Ecologically-Sensitive Zones (ESZs). The committee on Western Ghats have strictly restricted the mining and quarrying, use of land for non-forest purposes, construction of high rises etc. Despite the given, the Kerala government continued its deforestation and construction activities. This flood disaster is termed as manmade calamity because of the negligence shown by the government. Most mud slides and landslides are caused because of immense quarrying, rises, mushrooming to increase tourism and illegal forest land acquisition by private parties. CASE STUDY 2 SOUTH CAROLINA FLOODS IN USA, 2015: South Carolina is known for beaches and in less than 10 miles away are the mighty rivers of Waccamaw, Great Pee Dee. During storms these rivers swell and water get flooded. In 2015 its a extratropical storm that caused high precipitation which resulted in floods. A state of emergency have been declared before the disaster which reduced the severity to an extent. State emergency boards immediately responded and citizens are informed about the storm. The Radar machines that inform the disaster prior itself helps in preparations. Advanced Warning Operations Course (AWOC) were informed about the flash floods by National Weather Service Weather Prediction Center and trained them. Flights running has been cancelled for few days. All the states extended their hand in evacuating people from one region to another which helped in reducing the number of affected. The Nature Conservancy and Partners are modelling flood risk to South Carolina communities to determine where restoring and protecting the natural features of floodplain and coasts can best reduce the regions vulnerability. Land conservation protects future drinking water sources and allows naturally swelling rivers to overflow during storms. Living shorelines are being encouraged to prevent erosion. Using natural materials such as Oyster reefs which are benefits to coastal ecosystems. Affects are salinity decrease on fish, removal of introduced black basses, very rare plant species extinction etc. Fig: Sediment plumes visible from space from NASA CASE STUDY- 3 Describes the concept offlood resilient urban design in which the methods to manage the climate impacts are investigated while maintaining their functions of the city in Taiwan? (Wu and Chiang, 2018). In this, the insights are provided into the urban lagoon on transformation of the Tainan city that is introduced by international landscape design competition for Tainan Axis Transformation. There is a flood residentlandscape design that is based on mind step framework through design Optimization (rule-based), data analysis (GIS-based) and decision based (web-based). Processes that helps in determining whether the legume design that helps in determining has the ability to fully incorporate the essential factors of flooding in the urban transformation. Rule based modelling is used for building an active three-dimensional urban design platform which combines the potential floods information. A design approach for supporting decision making for urban resilient is also proposed. For combining the public opinion using the platform for the design, interaction and communication a workshop was also designed. Geo design that uses GIS address of the visualization tools how the stakeholders in focusing only on the Urban Development patterns as well as environmental characteristics of the city. The increase in the popularity of the Geo design isresult of considerable impact as well as that of threat of climate led natural disasters on human life and property, the need for long term planning and designing of the urban landscape project and their requirement for people to adapt, mitigate the effects of future natural disasters. Geo design helps people to think beyond their personal interest as it provides real time location images and the impact analysis in order to realize the effects of the flooding on the environment. Rule based modelling procedure of geo designis used for incorporating address for simulating extent of flooding in the City. A platform is provided by rule based procedure for interdisciplinary collaboration on which the solutions for key future designs can be identified easily. CASE STUDY -4 Flood is the most devastating natural disaster that is experienced by the people of Malaysia (BarzaniGasim, 2018). There are total 189 river basins throughout the Malaysia including Sarawak and Sabah channels from directly to the South China Seafrom which there are 85 rivers which are more liable to become recurrent flooding. approximately 29800 km. Sqarea is more vulnerable to flood disaster are 9 percent of the total Malaysia. if flood occurs in such area then almost 4.82 million people that is around 22% of the total population of the country will be affected adversely. A comparative study is used for determining the perception of the People regarding the floods and it is clear that most of the people believe that the main reason behind the flood is the improper drainage condition. It is analysed that33 % of the population agrees that water damage the building is another main effect of flooding and it is analysed that evacuating people from the flood liable for saving zones is a best way to reduce the number of flood victims. in order to mitigate the causes of floods there is need to ensureby the government of the peoplethat flood liable areas are not occupied with the buildings. Effects of floods damage homes and industries. It is analysed that victims have problem mainly with the cost of repair and is analysed that some shops do not open after the disaster. Another effect of flooding is the loss of income due toclosing of the business. from the analysis it is analysed a 25% of the peopleagree with this effect and 17% of the people believe that transportationdisruption is another major consequence of flooding. It is analysed that in order to reduce the effect of the flooding it is required to move people to high elevation locations. Another suggestion that is analysed to be used in order to reduce the flooding effect is to use modified structures that helps in reducing the frequency of the flooding. CASE STUDY-5 Provides resilience to flash floods in wetland communities of north-eastern Bangladesh (Kamal et al., 2018). There are lots of catastrophic hydro meteorological flood hazards occurred among which thee monsoon floods in the south Asia region is a disastrous flood in which twelve thousand people are killed nearly in India, Bangladesh and Nepal. In the year 2017, wetland region of north eastern Bangladesh was mostly affected by the flood in which one million of households are damaged and $450 US dollars worth of rice crops. This research provides the how the north eastern region of Bangladesh has experienced flash floods. And on what grade the communities of the wetland are vulnerable to the resilient flash floods. Analyses of the result shows that poor people are strongly affected by the flash flood but as they are more adaptive and thus resilient such as middle income households are very vulnerable and whereas rich households are being less adaptive and they are capable to recover from the flash flood disaster as because of wealth. As the wetland region of the north eastern Bangladesh is a liable area to the flash flood due to the high annual rainfall and low-lying flat topography. So that the community of the wetland becomes very vulnerable to the flash floods. And after analysis it is found that women of the wetland region are mostly affected. And reduce the damage form the risk it is essential that there should be appropriate educational program to raise awareness of natural disaster and empowering women with the help of training and helping them to find self-employment in community level which increase the resilience of Wetland community to flash flood and form other natural disasters. CASE STUDY -6 Provides the effect of the flooding on residential properties in 2012, in Kaduna Metropolis of Nigeria (Kunle, 2018). Flood is the most naturaldisaster that is considered in determining the property rental value. various effects of the floods in this year on the residential property value is analysed. two types of effect has been analysed responsible for theflooding which includes the primary and secondary effects. Primary effects include the physical damage which time its a type of structure, buildings, Roadways, bridges, cars and canals. On the other hand, the secondary effectsof the flood include the water supplies which result in contamination of water known as water pollution. in extreme cases different may also cause a loss of life. it is analysed that at least 102 people over killed by floods in an around the southwestern Nigerian city of Ibadan. three bridges were also damaged due to heavy rains and caused the time to overflow resulting in floods. there are certain factor that determines the effects of the floods which includes the level of predictability, rate ofonset of the flood, spread as well as depth of the water, duration of the flood. the level of predictability affects the accuracy, communication as well as timing of warnings given before the flood. rate of onset of the cloud includes how quickly the water arise and the speed at which it rises will govern the opportunity for people to respond and prepare effectively for the flood. speed as well as depth of the water dictate sea level of exposure of people and property to the flood. Duration of the flood is one of the most significant factors that determines the extent of its impact particularly on individuals as well as affected communities.certain factors are also analysed which affects the rental value which includes significant improvements in the quality of the real estate, usability, location and property conditions. CASE STUDY -7 Discussed towards the resilient and sustainable city adaptation model for flood disaster liable city which is based on Jakarta capital region [CITATION ELS18 l 2057 ] As the flood Hazards are one of the main issues that have threaten the sustainability of the Jakarta region. The intensity of various floods continues due to the increase of the heavy rainfall and conversion of land in poor urban drainage system. Therefore, city requires an increased capacity for facing the hazards such as floods. The improvement in the city plan requires a well-designed architecture to achieve the city state that is more resilience to the flood disasters which is also called as resilience city. The development of adaptation model for cities which are liable to the flood hazards such as provide resilient architecture to actualize thee sustainability of the Jakarta City. As form the SEM (Structural Equations Model (SEM) there are four factors that are affecting the adaptation model for the city which are liable to the flood hazards such as various cities of Jakarta that are found more innovation in technology, spatial arrangement, disaster mitigation and disaster adaptation. There are various resilient ways that can be used in order to create a resilient city. In this research, Spatial management is implemented in order to make cities resilient to the flood disasters which will enhance the capacity of city and also planned urban system for a sustainable and resilient city. CASE STUDY -8 Introduces the strategy towards the resilient flood risk management for Asian Coastal cities. (Chan et al., 2018) As Several Coastal cities are experiencing the risk of hydrological hazards which is due to the uncontrolled development of the cities and exposure to the natural phenomena combined with the change of climate which includes rise of level of sea, amplified storm surges and intensified storms. This risk is growing continuously growing in the Asian Coastal mega-cities in which many of the city has developed adequate adaption policies to address the climate change. This research provides the flood mitigation strategies that are applied by the Hong Kong and Singapore in order to reduce the impact of flood disaster. These strategies are made generally for the buildings that are very vulnerable to any disaster and with the holistic flood risk management approach they include various socio-economic factors. However, the increase of development of buildings and rapid climate change are main reasons for the disaster of flood. CASE STUDY -9 Describes that the flood resilient construction is the most essential component of the integrated approach to flood management in UK (Wals, 2018) which is accepted widely via the concepts of making space for water and living with floods. resilient construction has-been used for certain years but it has been recognized as part of this wider strategy for managing the flood risks. In Europe, the shortage of farmable land leads to use of land reclamation schemes and ensures land drainage acts before massive floods events. One of the emerging concepts is the property level of flood resilient in the UK and is recognized in some cases a hybrid approach might be favored in which the waters amount entering a property is limited. The technology as well as the understanding is considered to be moving forward with greater appreciation of the advantages from combining strategies as well as property level measures, incorporating water resilient materials. Future developments are likely to takes place in promoting the uptake of the flood resilient materials as well as technologies both in the construction of new and adaption of existing properties. A greater understanding of the performance standards regarding the resilient standards would help in proving confidence in such measures as support uptake. CASE STUDY -10 Describes that flood is one of the most recurring as well as frequentdisaster in the world. (Abdulkareem and Elkadi, 2018) Due to recurrent prevalence, lifetime age and the economic loss caused by the flood has put more burden on the economy as compare to other natural disasters. it is one such country which has continuouslysupport file manager at eventand claims huge loss of life as well as economy. It has been analysed that incidences of floods are increasing at Rapid speed due to change in the climate, Tsunami, cloud bursting etc but the devastation is rising both in terms of economies and lives. all the disaster management Indiais very organized and has structured programs as well as Policies but still the administration and implementation of these programs requires more efficiency. In this this trendsunpreparedness preparedness of the flood in India is analysed. in order to reduce the effect of the flood on the community, Government and household preparedness of the disaster is considered as most critical part. Four phases are used for all the disaster management communities which includes the emergency. As the initial phase, restoration as the second phase, replacement reconstruction, as third phase and the commemorative betterment as the fourth phase. it is analysed that time taken by each phase is more longer as time taken by the previous onewhich is approximately 10 times longer. In order to set alarming system at the bank of the rivers that helps in alerting the neighboring dwellers and can be considered as effective measures for minimizing the damage caused due to floods.From the analysis of the top 10 disasters in the last 10 years it is analysed that 84% of the people are nearly killed by the floods. Out of 10 flood disasters 7 disasters are there which claimed 1117 lives. Various approachesare taken by disaster IndianNational Institute of disaster management in order to mitigate the floods time to time. Both structural as well as nonstructural measures are taken by the Indian government in order to reduce the flood losses and protect the damages caused by the flood. From the analysis of the floodTrends and damages caused by the flood suggest that there is need to have effective pray as well as post-disaster mechanism as they nature cannot be checked but disaster can be reduced. CASE STUDY-11 Japan flood in 2018 In the mid of July, southwestern areas of Japan get affected by the devastating floods and mud flows, 225 people were died due to this natural disaster and 13 people were missing more than 8 million people get affected by this natural disaster, it is deadliest flood of fresh water in the country since the Nagasaki flooding in which the 300 people were killed. 54000 members of japan forces or self-defenses forces, fire fighters and disaster management team have been searching the people who have lost their places nd liaison unit of crisis is formulated by the regional government that is quite helpful to reduce the severity of this flood (Cbsnews, 2018). Comparison of case studies According to the environmental defence fund in the United States it is stated that the government has spent nearly 4 billion dollars for controlling of all natural disasters which includes floods.even with the large amount of funding for flood disaster relief the preventive Technology for preventing the blood is still like in. It is seen that the recent floods like Austing, Texas helps in demonstrating the greater measures which are required. In Japan it has been recognised that there is a need for preventive Technology for ensuring the safety of the inhabitants. In the area which are being tracked by The Rivers in the East and West Tokyo is one of the best example waiting for a disaster to occur.it is stated that no and PAN has not prepared in love according to Toru Sueoka,the president of Japanese geotechnology society regarding the disaster which is to be occurred. it is taken by the government that many weather patterns have been changed in order to check the weather conditions and in every weather pattern unusual conditions are being faced. So it is required by the management to upgrade the technology on the facility with is being used in order to cope up with the floods. it was found that on the banks ofArakawa River 33 trillion yen or roughly $322 billion dollars was the amount of damage which was caused to the particular city by the estimates which are being made by the government.the figure which was estimated if is more than 5 times amount which is being used for rehabilitation efforts for hurricane. In order to mitigate from that particular disaster specialised project was developed in order to protect the city from flooding. This particular project is known as Metropolitan area outer discharge channel. The main purpose of this project is to rain fall away from the city area and into the underground. The water is then funnelled onto rivers away from the population centre. system which was being used by the management basically consists of at least 5 vertical shaft which are so tall and cavernous that basically takes a shape of shuttle which could fit right in. Each shaft which is present in this system is basically connected to a ten-meter diameter, 6.3 kilometre channel which helps in finishing a huge pressure adjusting tank.the use of this particular Tango also helps in maintaining the optimum water pressure in the system. it was analysed thatTokyo has a land area of 1,782 square kilometres and has overtaken New York-Newark as the worlds most densely populated region. It was noticed that this city has been 35 million inhabitants compared to the 19 million in New York and Newark.it was estimated by UN that the investments in infrastructure and technology to control the effects of climatic change that includes flood costs$130 billion dollars by the year 2030. So it is required by the government authorities of particular country to protect from the climatic conditions which occurs. FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (FEMA) [CITATION Fem18 l 2057 ]FEMA ensures that it has programs that take action even before the disaster occurs. It usually works on programs for floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, dams, tropical storms. FEMA works under the standards and guidelines under Mapping, Assessment and Planning (MAP). These standards define the implementation details for National Flood Insurance Program((NFIP) mapping to ensure affordable flood insurance to homeowners in flood plains. It has few decentralised teams which are Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT), National Disaster Medical System (NDMS), Urban Search and Rescue (USAR), Mobile Emergency Response Support (MERS). There are two types of standards namely Program standards and Working standards. Program Standards: It carries most important elements of Risk MAP program and the exceptions to this program are granted only be program leadership. Working Standards: These are applied by specialists like engineers, scientists, planners and technicians etc). It is a required element of Risk MAP more elaborately than program standards. Exceptions are occasionally granted by FEMA Regional Offices and have minimal ethical, political and legal impacts to the program. Fig: FEMA guidelines and standards The Policy for Flood Risk Analysis and Mapping comprises the standards for practitioners of FEMAs Risk Mapping, Assessment and Planning (Risk MAP) program. These standards ensure the particular implementation of statutory and regulatory requirements of National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) flood risk analysis and mapping. It has Letter of Map Changes (LOMC), address the performance of flood risk projects and Risk MAP activities. Coastal areas are most affected by floods and FEMA has its precautions taking regarding coastal floods. People migrating to coastal areas are increasing year by year which is making it more and more vulnerable and the elimination of mangrove forests at the continental shelf area also plays a major role in uncontrolled floods. Fig: FEMA functioning process A report in 2013 determined that 39 percent of US population lives in countries that are directly adjacent to open ocean, Great lakes, major estuary. Through Risk MAP effort, FEMA has initiated Flood Insurance Studies (FISs) and Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) to resolve the costal flood issues. FEMA insists the citizens to understand propertys natural hazard risk and take steps accordingly. Another approach of FEMA is to strengthen resilience through parks and open spaces. These open spaces helps community resilience like physical resilience, holistic well-being and recovery from the storm. Playgrounds can capture million tons of water within it and the playgrounds allow science teachers to include storm water management, rain gardens, landscape architecture etc. open spaces can also prevent diseases like cholera and typhoid fever that cause because of stagnant water. A lack of open spaces decreases physical activity and hence many diseases like diabetes, obesity, heart disease, expose to agriculture chemicals etc are increasing. States that the almost half of the worlds population lives in the coastal regions and this number is expected to increase in the future. (Restemeyer, Woltjer and van den Brink, 2015) The pressure tends to increase in the regions which primarily lies below the sea water levels such as Jakarta and Rotterdam and Dhaka. Measures which cooperate with the growing threads of rising sea water levels are considered as be highly inevitable. In this, an overview of one of the relative new approach in the integrated Coastal Zone Management is provided that is flood resilient. There is a flood resilient concept in the water management which is implemented in the Jakarta which is a cultural, economic heart of Indonesia. Number of problems arises with the establishment of this city such as traffic congestion as well as scarcity of fresh water but one of the most immediate challenge which is faced by the city of Jakarta is the land subsidence which leads to increase flood risk. For anticipating such risks, the government of Netherlands, Jakarta as well as Indonesia, developed a national Capital Integrated Coastal Development program. In this approach various Dutch engineers as well as consultancy firms developed a master plan for supporting Jakarta in their coastal development program. This masterplan is tested in order to provide the answer to the how flood resilient is Jakarta. There are some indicators of the flood resilient which are derived from the framework and are not mentioned in the Masterplan. Various types of soils:- Described that over past 50 years, uncontrolled growth is experienced by the cities which caused the loss of various permeable soils. (Gupta, 2007) Soils ability of absorbing the rainwater is reduced due to soil sealing, which compromises the capability of the cities to manage the impact of rainstorms that are triggered by climate change and consequently leads to increased flood risks. In this, the green infrastructures for the urban adaption to the climate-related events is analysed. The flood that hit the Benevento in October 2015, is analysed which leads to the definition of nature based strategy designed for achieving the three main goals which includes reducing the impervious surfaces in the compact city, recovering fluvial ecosystem and preventing further soil sealing. The green infrastructure for flood resilient city is presented. The opportunities to improve the capacity of the city is to cope up with the flood is required not only within the compact city of the Benevento, but also to improve the existing green surrounding areas. The solutions for the compact city includes the measures addressed for achieving the recover impervious surfaced in the compact city through sustainable urban drainage systems. Implementation of the flood control infrastructure:- States that although there is widespread implementation of the flood control infrastructure (Liao, Le and Nguyen, 2016) all plans but still modern cities around the world are vulnerable to flood hazard., what about the flood management has placed less efforts on structural measures urban pet hazard mitigation remains to fixate on the flood control paradigm, the ideology thatflooding must be prevented at initially as flooding is considered as disastrous event. In order to promote the urbanflood resilience, the arguments for the alternative blood adoption paradigm are provided which concerns in preventing damage when the flooding occurs and allow the flooding to enter the city. The argument stated in this are counted on the ecological wisdom of living with the floods in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta in the two hamlets named as Ha Bao and Vinh An. In this two places the flooding is mostly harmless and brings more benefits in order to turn the ecological wisdom of the Hamlet into the practical knowledge some lessons are extracted for modern cities. ecological knowledge is required by the modern cities in order to ensure the ecological wisdom actionable over these cities are required to become agile by developing localized flood response capacity. the urban design principles that are provided include urban design must anticipate as well as the committed flooding and the urban design must incorporate the ecological processes of flooding. another urban design principle reveals the flood dynamics to the public. Eventuality of flooding is really affected by the urban design and is assumed that flood hazardous mitigation is a business of hydraulic engineering.ecological system can be practical or actionable knowledge. But management requires ecological wisdom as it is fundamentally about mediating the relationship between the hydrological Dynamics and human activities. It is analysed that the relationship between the flooding and the cities must not be reduced by the hazard management. Future directions From the future perspective of this research the Indian organization or governmental bodies can implement the strategies as the Federal emergency management agency of USA has implemented for the wellbeing of human lives at the time of natural disaster and state of emergency in the country. The proactive disaster mange met plan can be used by the Indian government so that the n number of severities involved in natural disaster can be reduced. The Indian government can take advantages of technology as the number of teams related National response coordination center (NRCC), federal emergency management agency of USA and National disaster medical systems support he public safety and for this purpose a mobile application system is developed that help to identify the number of victim at the time of disasters. Proactive approach can be used by the Indian government to resolve the number of implications related to disaster in Kerala. this is a comparative analysis and the reliability and validity of this research is not support by the quantitative analysis therefore it is the future scope of this research to validate the number of results and finding with the help of quantitative analysis. This is the future work of this research number of resources can gathered from the primary resources and test the validity of hypothesis in context of the flood management or disaster mange met in India. The validation of root cause behind the occurrence of disaster can be identified in ineffective manner the usage of this strategy. The more variable data can be generated with the usage of this strategy in future scope of this research. The future of this research include the type of methodology that can be used for accessing the number of implications related to proposed approach. Conclusion This research concludes the various implications related Kerala floods along with the number of strategies that can be used to reduce the number of issues related natural disaster occur in natural disaster if Australia. There are number of technologies described in this research such as Floating technology which presents a major breakthrough for the British Architects sometimes have been investigating the ways in order to mitigate the risk houses which are located in the flood prone areas. Amphibioustechnology is another technology which helps in preventing the various houses from the flood. Flood risk management help in reducing the risk from the flood events to all the people located in the flood prone areas. Jack technology is one of the retrofitting method which is used for elevating the house which is required for the protection of front elevation. Massive underground flood preventing technology is one of the effective technology which can be used for the protection of floods. References Abdulkareem, M. and Elkadi, H. (2018). From engineering to evolutionary, an overarching approach in identifying the resilience of urban design to flood.International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 28, pp.176-190. Akilan, A., Balaji, S., Abdul Azeez, K. and Satyanarayanan, M. (2017). Source and causes of 2015 great pluvial flood of Chennai, Tamil Nadu and its surroundings.Journal of the Geological Society of India, 90(5), pp.602-608. Anon, (2018). 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Severe flooding affected the South
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