Working Title ICT policy making toward smart living in Taiwan Research Question(s) How do ICT policies support the development of smart living in Taiwan? Abstract/Summary: (100 words or fewer) Taiwans government has been eager to adopt smart living goals enabled by information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure and applications. Previous Taiwanese governments ICT policies only focus on the development of ICT industries with an emphasis on hardware production. To achieve the smart living goals, there is a need to shift ICT policies direction to promote the development of advanced ICT infrastructure and applications to realise the smart living goals. This research plans to analyse policy documents and other secondary source data to understand how Taiwanese ICT policies support the development and application of smart living. Literature/Past Research Review Smart living technologies are driven by information and communication technology (ICT). The ultimate goal is to make human living easier by using ICT to improve diverse aspects of human living (Chan, Campo, Estve&Fourniols, 2009; Pan,Lin,Chuang& Kao,2011). Smart living technologies in this context can be defined as the use of ICT that makes things easier for people to meet their needs with regards to food, security, medication, housing, education and entertainment(Albino, Berardi & Dangelico, 2015; Chen & Chang,2009). Taiwans GDP growth over time highlights a shift from manufacture-oriented to investment-oriented and now innovation-oriented living, in which manufacturing and government investments rely on innovation and the ability to do work in a smart ICT-driven manner. This makes smart living an essential need for Taiwan. The transition over the years from manufacture-oriented to investment-oriented and now to innovation-orientation living is presented in Figure 1. With the need for knowledge intensive work, Taiwans Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has initiated the 2020 foresight programme where smart living technology implementation would support the transition of mass production industries to high valued service, product and system industries. Figure 1: State of Transitions to Innovation-driven ICT Environment Source:Lee et al. (2011) A background study of ICT policies in Taiwan indicates that the government has had some success with ICT implementations, but still has much scope for improvement in order to fully support smart living initiatives. As of 2002, the number of internet users in Taiwan was much less as compared to western nations and Nordic countries (Aizu, 2002). Previous ICT policies in Taiwan primarily focused on becoming a leader in manufacturing. Regional programs were developed to empower the northern, central and southern regions in Taiwan. Currently, the ICT implementations have improved because more people have started using the internet in Taiwan. For example, basic internet usage has increased. Internet usage measured in terms of wired connectivity was 62.7 percent in the year 2005, but in 2017 connectivity was 82.3 percent. People make use of smart phones for connection with the internet and combined with the surge in IoTs (Internet of things), the number of wired and wireless connections have also increased. Personal and household use of ICT has risen just as much as commercial usage. In this situation, the argument for introducing smart living initiatives gains strength. The dimensions of smart living that can potentially be introduced for Taiwan are threefold (Lee et al., 2011).The first dimension is related to smart living that enables the fostering of new industries by connecting workforce professionals across the country. Data collected from planned smart living environments can be further used to empower smart living through data mining technology. The second dimension of smart living aims to promote business opportunities for local industries and ensures that local industries like health care and others learn from international exposure. The third dimension of smart living is to have smart living innovation models which were based on user needs(Lee et al., 2011).In the past, Taiwans ICT projects focused on high margin and technology-driven ICTs. In the smart living initiative, a service-driven model that gives users the core importance will be part of the new policy direction. In other words, smart living programmes will be supported and driven by user-centric design. The need to have an appropriate ICT infrastructure to connect people and resources is at the core of smart living initiatives because Taiwan is a heavily populated country with its population and resources distributed over the terrain (Chen,Guo,Chen,Chen&Kuo,2001). A more integrated ICT and smart living platform is planned for Taiwan (Lee et al., 2011). Firstly, four areas of ICT implementation from the past policy in 2006, which are e-Life, e-Government, e-Business and e-Transportation, formed the core of e-Taiwan national policy (Figure 2). The e-Taiwan and the M-Taiwan plans were both initiated in May 2002. The M-Taiwan strategy attempted to connect industry, society and nation with ICT (Figure 3). As of 2008, the U-Taiwan strategy was created which augments with value-added services in infrastructure, building of next generation networks that aim at improving e-opportunities, electronic governance and life enhancing application development. These strategies are the historical backbone of smart living initiatives in Taiwan and based on which future planning is made. Figure 2: e-Taiwan Strategy Source: Lee et al. (2011) Figure 3: M-Taiwan Strategy Source: Lee et al. (2011) The future polices for smart living will be focused on creation of differentiated services, meaning that services will be focused on different sectors from manufacturing to health care and more.ICT initiatives will be planned out for trial zones, in the form of smart towns and intelligent parks and later rolled out to larger regions. Living labs will be created. A Living Lab is a user-driven open innovation ecosystem based on a business-citizens-government partnership which enables users to take an active part in the research, development and innovation process (European Commission,as cited in Lee et al., 2011, p. 102). As part of smart living, existing ICT ventures such as the smart card system used in Taiwan hospitals can now be improved. While hospitals have been supporting the smart card system, there was less effective information sharing among healthcare providers. More smart use of such data can be initiated in government policies (Liu,Yang,Yeh& Wang,2006). As of 2007, there was no interoperable electronic health record (EHR) standard (Chang,Li,Wu& Yen,2012; Wu, Majeed &Kuo, 2010).This research will use health care in Taiwan as a case study to examine how Taiwanese government ICT policies can shape smart living in the country. Research Question/Design/Plan of the Study: The case study research methodology will be used. In particular, this is an exploratory study where the case study of Taiwan Smart living initiatives specific to health care will be discussed. Data used in the analysis will be published reports from the Taiwanese ICT policy documents and other relevant popular press and academic publications on the topic of ICT policies on smart living in Taiwan. Actor network theory (ANT) will be used to guide the analysis. Human and non-human actors are treated in a fair manner in the ANT theory (Tatnall & Gilding, 1999). The principle of generalised symmetry is useful for the current research work as it will help identify both human and non-human factors such as organisational or institutional structures that have gone into creating ICT and smart living. This is because smart living initiatives are not developed in one industry, but multiple institutions as well as ICT components need to come together to develop a coherent smart living initiative. Collective achievements and strategies for successful initiatives require all actors to work together (Yoo, Lyytinen & Yang,2005). Research works like that of Yoo, Lyytinen and Yang (2005) highlighted how in a broadband mobile infrastructure initiative, effective coordination between different actors or agents are necessary. In their case, independent developers, manufacturers or users of telecommunication technologies including manufacturers, operators, service providers and mobile service use were required for successful completion (Yoo,Lyytinen&Yang,2005, p. 324). References Aizu, I. (2002). A comparative study of broadband in Asia: deployment and policy.Abstract retrieved June 25, 2018 from http://www.anr.org/web/html/output/2002/bbasia0929.pdf Albino, V., Berardi, U., &Dangelico, R. M. (2015). Smart cities: Definitions, dimensions, performance, and initiatives.Journal of Urban Technology, 22(1), 3-21. Chan, M., Campo, E., Estve, D., &Fourniols, J. Y. (2009). Smart homescurrent features and future perspectives. Maturitas, 64(2), 90-97. Chang, I. C., Li, Y. C., Wu, T. Y., & Yen, D. C. (2012). Electronic medical record quality and its impact on user satisfactionHealthcare providers point of view. Government Information Quarterly, 29(2), 235-242. Chen, H. S., Guo, F. R., Chen, C. Y., Chen, J. H., &Kuo, T. S. (2001). Review of telemedicine projects in Taiwan. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 61(2-3), 117-129. Chen, S. Y., & Chang, S. F. (2009). A review of Smart Living space development in a cloud computing network environment. Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 6(4), 513-527. Lee, C. K., Lee, J., Lo, P. W., Tang, H. L., Hsiao, W. H., Liu, J. Y., & Lin, T. L. (2011). Taiwan perspective: Developing smart living technology. International Journal of Automation and Smart Technology, 1(1), 93-106. Liu, C. T., Yang, P. T., Yeh, Y. T., & Wang, B. L. (2006). The impacts of smart cards on hospital information systemsAn investigation of the first phase of the national health insurance smart card project in Taiwan. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 75(2), 173-181. Pan, J. G., Lin, Y. F., Chuang, S. Y., & Kao, Y. C. (2011). From governance to service-smart city evaluations in Taiwan. In Service Sciences (IJCSS), 2011 International Joint Conference on (pp. 334-337). IEEE. Tatnall, A. and A. Gilding (1999), Actor-network theory and information systems research, Proceedings of the 10th Australasian Conference on Information Systems, School of Communications and Information Management, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, pp. 95566. Wu, T. Y., Majeed, A., &Kuo, K. N. (2010). An overview of the healthcare system in Taiwan. London Journal of Primary Care, 3(2), 115-119. Yoo, Y., Lyytinen, K., & Yang, H. (2005). The role of standards in innovation and diffusion of broadband mobile services: The case of South Korea. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 14(3), 323-353.
Taiwans government has been eager
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