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FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT AND LAWSCHOOL OF MANAGEMENTD I S T A N C E L E A R N I N G M B A2016/17HRM7012-AManagement ofChangeMODULE STUDY BOOKStudy Book: Management of Change2 Bradford MBACopyright University of Bradford 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015,2016, 2017First published 2012 Fourth edition 2015Second edition 2013 Fifth edition 2016Third edition 2014 Sixth edition 2017MBAMOCUKSB62017HRM7012-AUniversity of Bradford, Richmond Road, Bradford, BD7 1DPBradford University School of ManagementDirector of StudiesCraig JohnsonProgramme LeaderIan FouweatherProgramme AdministratorsGavin Turner G.B.Turner@bradford.ac.uk (Distance Learning MBA)Emma Pheasant E.L.Pheasant@bradford.ac.uk (Dubai and BradfordExecutive MBA)Module LeaderSue Richardson s.richardson3@bradford.ac.ukModule Development TeamRobert Wapshot, David Spicer, Christine Swales, Gabi Witthaus,Sue RichardsonBradford University School of ManagementEmm Lane Bradford BD9 4JLTel: 01274 234374Fax: 01274 232311Website: www.bradford.ac.uk/managementThis Study Book may not be sold, hired out or reproduced in part or inwhole in any form or by any means whatsoever without the Universitysprior consent in writing.Bradford MBA 3ContentsIntroduction to the Module 7Your module leader 7Overview of Module and Module Descriptor 7Assessment criteria 7Assignment 8Support for your learning 12Developing good academic practice 15Module feedback from previous students 16Unit 1: Introducing Management of Change 17Introduction 17Objectives 18Change and the world around us 18Impacts of change 19Recognising a need for change 20Responses to change pressures 21Summary 22References 23Unit 2: Diagnosis and Preparing for Change 25Introduction 25Objectives 26Using models for diagnosis 26Organisation-level diagnosis 27Operational level getting closer to action 29Personal level 31Summary 33References 33Unit 3: Implementing Change 35Introduction 35Objectives 36Approaches to change and n-steps 36Organisation development 37Resistance to change 37Summary 39Study Book: Management of Change4 Bradford MBAAdditional learning resources 39References 40Unit 4: Enabling Change 41Introduction 41Objectives 42Change and the challenge of delegation 42Customised empowerment and technical tools 43Recognising the people side of change 43Summary 44References 45Unit 5: Communicating Change 47Introduction 47Objectives 48Communication and change why does it matter? 48Change as a communication problem 49Communication strategies and skills 50Stories, organisations and change 51Silence 53Summary 54References 56Unit 6: Culture and Change 57Introduction 57Objectives 58What is organisational culture? 58What does culture do? 59Recognising cultures 60Culture and change 61Changing culture 62Summary 63References 64Unit 7: Evaluating Change Effectiveness 65Introduction 65Objectives 65Do most change efforts fail? 66Evaluation politics 67Summary 69References 70ContentsBradford MBA 5Unit 8: Sustaining Change 71Introduction 71Objectives 71The meaning of sustainability 72Issues to monitor 73Summary 75References 77Unit 9: Revision 79The task 80Planning 80Summary 82References 83Appendix A: Module Descriptor 85Appendix B: Model Answers to Activities 89Unit 3 89Unit 5 90Unit 8 91 Bradford MBA 7Introduction to the ModuleYour module leaderSue Richardson graduated with a BSc (hons) in Ergonomics fromLoughborough University and went on to complete her MSc SocialResearch (distinction) and PhD from Plymouth University. For most of hercareer Sue has worked as a researcher in UK universities but for fiveyears (20062011) she worked at Yorkshire Forward, an English regionaldevelopment agency. Sue moved from her position as EvaluationManager at Yorkshire Forward to join Bradford University School ofManagement in January 2011. Most of Sues consultancy experienceoccurred when she was a researcher at Loughborough University whereshe was fortunate enough to work with organisations such as BT,Nationwide Building Society, Anglo Overseas Transport Co. Ltd, SiemensUK, Shell UK Oil, Thorntons Chocolates, Accenture and others. Suescurrent research interests are: 1) inter-organisational working with a focuson information sharing in public service delivery; 2) creating inclusive workenvironments and, in particular, for employees living with dementia.Previously, Sue has researched partnership working as well asorganisational change for new technology.Overview of Module andModule DescriptorThis module is designed to enable you to: understand the change process, the subsequent organisational andindividual responses/reactions to change and how theseresponses/reactions might be managed accordingly identify the environmental influences which can impact changemanagement assess the implementation of change within organisations.Please see Appendix A for the module descriptor.Assessment criteriaThe assignment will be assessed using the following criteria: understanding of the topic of management of change and its relevanceto practiceStudy Book: Management of Change8 Bradford MBA knowledge of theory/frameworks/models/concepts fluency of writing scholarship (breadth and relevance of reading) quality of evaluation/analysis critical thinking/ complexity of ideas structure/presentation referencing and citation.AssignmentThe assignment will contribute 100% of the assessment. It should betyped or word-processed; it should comprise no more than 2,000 words.Once your assignment has been marked, you will receive written feedbackfrom your tutor. The assignment will require knowledge of the modulematerial up to and including Unit 8.Assignment aimThe aim of the assignment is to assess your understanding of coreconcepts discussed in the module along with your wider reading andability to apply your reading/understanding to a real change scenario.You are asked to identify and analyse a significant organisational changethat you have: been involved in, affected by, or experienced (directly orindirectly). Ideally this should be an organisational change from a previousor current work situation. In exception, you may consider an organisationalchange drawn from the literature, company websites and/or the press(newspapers, etc.) but it is highly preferable to base the assignment onyour own, detailed experiences. Exceptions must be discussed with themodule tutor PRIOR to submission and it is advised that this is done assoon as possible.Assignment taskYour assessment submission should take the form of a case study of yourorganisational change and an accompanying teaching note. It should be intwo parts, as detailed below, and should be submitted by 11 July 2017.You can imagine the two parts of the assignment as comprising materialsyou are using as a fictional teacher of a Management of Change course.You need to create a case study for your students to use in a tutorial and ateaching note for yourself or a colleague who will be facilitating the tutorial.Introduction of the ModuleBradford MBA 9Part One case studyThe first part should take the form of a short descriptive case study; theaim of this should be to outline the nature, scope and extent of the changeconsidered, along with the key stakeholders, milestones and resultantissues. Feel free to use pseudonyms if you prefer not to name yourorganisation or particular role-holders in it. The case should be capable ofbeing read as a stand-alone narrative of the organisational change underconsideration that gives readers sufficient information to develop their ownunderstanding and analysis of this change.Your case study should have a clear and distinct title. It can take aparticular focus on the change considered (such as culture, resistance,leadership, etc.). If this strategy is adopted, this should be clearly indicatedin the title of Part 1 of your work (e.g. Management of ChangeAssignment, Part 1 Managing Cultural Change in P&G). This does notmean that other aspects of the module are not brought into Part 2 of theassignment. You should, where possible, demonstrate breadth ofknowledge across the module as well as depth but this can be done in anumber of ways and you can be creative about how this is achieved byskilful development of the tutorial questions you pose.This first part of the assignment should conclude with either three or fourquestions for the students to work on in their own time before theirdiscussion in the tutorial. It is likely that the use of academic literature inthe case study (Part 1) will be limited, but you may draw on some aspectsof the literature to illustrate the nature of the change and/or where itrelates directly to the organisation if you wish. Part 2 however will be youropportunity to indicate your scholarship and the wider reading needed forit.Part Two teaching note/model answersThe second part of your assignment should contain the followinginformation beneath a new heading to indicate that this is Part 2, teachingnote/model answers:1. An outline of the main learning points contained in your case study toremind you or your colleague (as users of the teaching note and modelanswers) of the main points arising from the case study that yourstudents should be able to demonstrate their understanding of.2. Brief answers to each of the (three or four) questions you identified atthe end of your case study, demonstrating knowledge of the modulematerials and wider reading around the subject area. This will thenenable you to link the main issues in your case study to relevantmodels, concepts and theories. In this section, describe what you wouldexpect the best students to include in their answers, drawing oninformation from the case study and relevant theoretical frameworksStudy Book: Management of Change10 Bradford MBAfrom the module or from wider reading. To be able to demonstrate yourknowledge and analysis skills, you will need to choose your questionscarefully. You will also need to go further than selecting and describingrelevant theories/models/concepts for analysis needed to answer thequestions. You will be expected to give worked examples of theseanalyses. Remember that tables and charts are not included in the wordcount so providing the results of your analyses should not pose anydifficulties in this respect.3. A single reference list of all sources referred to (i.e. cited), including anyused in Part 1.It is not necessary to include an introduction and conclusion around thetwo parts of this assignment, but the start of the case itself and theteaching note should be clearly indicated and credit will be given forstructuring each of these in an appropriate way. It is important to realisethat this is not an essay. Part 1 will need to be structured as a casestudy (telling the story of what happened in this case) and Part 2 asa teaching note/model answers. It is likely that each part will be roughlyequal in length but depending on the case and the questions, you maywant one part to be slightly longer than the other. Please ensure that, intotal (both parts together), you do not exceed the 2,000 wordsmaximum. As with most assignments, the reference list, tables andfigures are not included for the word count.Appendix reflective accountThe appendix should contain a brief, reflective description of your learningin this module maximum 250 words.Writing this reflective account will help you to examine how your ownlearning was complemented by engaging in interactive discussions and todraw links between the theoretical material discussed in the units relatedto the management of change and the practical issues you faced whenapplying these in your assessment.Therefore, your reflective account should include these elements: An evaluation of what theoretical aspects of the management of changeyou found you could apply in your own context. Reflection on your own individual learning and your learning in aninteractive discussion forum. A summary of what you have learnt from doing this assignment andhow it could inform your future work.Additional appendices may be added if required. Please note: thetotal appendices must not exceed 15 pages.Introduction of the ModuleBradford MBA 11For guidance on successfully completing assignments see theAssessment section of the Management of Change Blackboard site andthe Effective Learning Service (www.bradford.ac.uk/management/els).Submitting the assignmentThe deadline for submitting your work is 23.59 hours (UK time) 11 July2017.Part One, Part Two and the appendix should be submitted as a singledocuments with clear delineation between the parts.All assignments will be submitted electronically via Turnitin on the moduleBlackboard site: go to Blackboard > Module Site > Assessment > Turnitin.Click on View/Complete.You will then be taken to a submission page.The First and Last name boxes are automatically filled in. Check that yourdetails are correct.In the submission title box, you should label your work using yourUB number and the module code e.g. 01234567 HRM7012-A (you canfind the code on the title page of this Study Book). It is imperative that youupload your assignment in the above format failure to do so may resultin examiners being unable to mark your work.Click the Browse button to upload your file. Navigate to your file and clickOpen.Click Upload. Wait while your file is uploaded to the server.The next page gives you the opportunity to review your submission. Atthis point you have not yet submitted, and can return to the submissionpage to start again if you so wish. If you are happy that this is the correctpaper and you want to continue to submit, scroll to the bottom of the pageand click Submit.You will then be emailed a receipt to your university email address,which will include your assignment identification reference.For further information on how to submit your assignments using Turnitin,go to the How To section of Blackboard (Under My Organisations) andsee How to Submit an Assignment Electronically.Study Book: Management of Change12 Bradford MBASubmitting the evidence of discussion forumparticipationYou will need to compile a document indicating your participation indiscussion forums. You should then submit this document by using thesame method as described above for submitting your assessment viaTurnitin. Go to: Blackboard > Module Site > Evidence of Participation >Turnitin.Supplementary assessmentIn the event that you are required to take supplementary assessment youwill be notified of this immediately after by the Examination Board. Prior tothe submission of any supplementary assessment you will have theopportunity to have a one-to-one and/or group meeting (online or inperson) with the module tutor to discuss the supplementary assessment.Support for your learningGeneral guidance on the support available for students from informationservices can be found at: http://www.bradford.ac.uk/information-services/.Approach to studying management of changeAs a distance learning student, you will be studying this module at a timeand place that fits around your work, social and family commitments. Tobe successful in your studies, you will need to juggle these commitmentsand make every effort to maintain a steady flow of activity as you workyour way through the module materials. You will need to find windows oftime for your studies on a regular, weekly basis. It is strongly advisedthat you progress through the module studying one unit per week. Ifyou do this, you will find that the issues addressed in the discussionforums and the live online tutorials will correspond closely to your ownstudies.With this in mind, you should aim to start your studies the weekcommencing 24 April 2017. This is when the Blackboard materials forthis module will be made available. If you follow the study patternsuggested (completing one unit per week), you will finish the final unit ofthis module on (or around) 26 June 2017. You will then leave yourselftime to prepare for the assessment.TextbookThroughout the module, you will need to refer to the module textbook:Introduction of the ModuleBradford MBA 13Palmer, I., Dunford, R. and Buchanan, D.A. (2017) Managingorganizational change: A multiple perspective approach. 3rd InternationalEdition. Boston: McGraw-Hill.The textbook forms an essential part of your study. You will be asked toread the chapters specified at the beginning of each unit to familiariseyourself with the concepts and issues covered.Module Study BookTo develop your understanding of the subject matter, this Study Bookcontains a number of exercises and refers to a variety of informationsources (e.g. audio files containing lectures, academic and non-academicpapers). It is strongly advised that you follow the prompts provided andengage with all the materials. The materials include:Study Book activities and case studiesAs you progress through the Study Book, you will be asked to complete aseries of short activities. Completion of these activities is absolutelyessential if you are to develop a good understanding of the subject. Simplyreading the textbook and the Study Book will not be sufficient.Model answers to the activities, where applicable, are provided inAppendix B.Audio recordings and slidesIn each unit, you will be advised to listen to audio recordings and consultthe corresponding slides highlighting key theories and ideas.The discussion boardThe discussion board in Blackboard enables you to engage in discussionwith other students and the tutor regardless of your location. You will beable to participate in six discussion forums for the following purposes: General module issues This is a forum for general questions aboutthe module and its content and direction as well as questions about allthe material you will work through on the module. Assessment issues You are urged to put any general queries aboutthe assessment here, since the reply provided by the tutor may alsoanswer queries from other students. Topic-specific discussion forum activities There will be fourstructured discussion forum activities related to the module content,which will provide you with an opportunity to share ideas with otherStudy Book: Management of Change14 Bradford MBAdistance learners and explore different ways of thinking about thesubject. These activities will directly support you in your preparations forthe final assignment, and will also help you to break down the isolationthat inevitably comes with learning at a distance. You should participatein all four forums and you are required to submit evidence ofparticipation in three of the four activity-based discussion forumsto pass this module.Live tutorials on Blackboard Collaborate virtualclassroom platformDuring the module, you will be required to attend four live, online tutorialsconducted by a module tutor. These online tutorials will provide you withan opportunity to engage in detailed, real-time discussions on key issuesand concepts with other students and academics. The subject andmaterials for each live online tutorial are outlined in the Study Book. Youwill be given details of the times and dates of these tutorial sessions oncethe module has commenced.If you have never used the Blackboard Collaborate virtual classroomplatform before, it is essential that you familiarise yourself with the platformand test your computer setup before you attend the first tutorial. Forsupport and information about Collaborate, please go to the BlackboardCollaborate: Original Experience help site at:https://en-us.help.blackboard.com/Collaborate/v12.Formative assessmentYou will be provided with two opportunities to submit pieces of work thatyour module tutor will assess and give you detailed feedback on. Theseopportunities for formative feedback relate to your assignment and willtake place during Unit 5 and Unit 9 (See these units in the Study Book forfurther details.)Please note: none of your answers to these formative tasks willcount toward the final grade these are optional exercises that allowyou to test (and receive feedback on) your understanding of keyconcepts, theories and ideas.Multiple-choice questionsYou will have access to a comprehensive bank of multiple-choicequestions in Blackboard, allowing you to monitor your understanding ofbasic concepts and get instant feedback at the end of each unit.Introduction of the ModuleBradford MBA 15Internet resourcesThere are several websites that provide relevant and up-to-dateinformation related to the topics discussed in this module. Sites well worthvisiting regularly include The Economist and Financial Times. (You will beasked for your university username and password.)Additional textbooksIf you wish to explore the subject area further, the following textbooks arelikely to be of use: Balogun, J., Hope Hailey, V. and Gustafsson, S. (2016) ExploringStrategic Change. 4th Edition. London: Pearson Education. Burnes, B. (2014) Managing Change. 6th Edition. Harlow: Pearson. Collins, D. (1998) Organisational Change Sociological Perspectives.London: Routledge. Hayes, J. (2014) The Theory and Practice of Change Management. 4thEdition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Jabri, M. (2012) Managing organizational change: Process, social;construction and dialogue. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.For further resources, see the sections in Blackboard entitled AdditionalLearning Resources and Web Links.Developing good academic practiceHarvard referencing styleStudents will be required to provide references to the sources used toproduce work. This shows what students have read, supports thearguments and acknowledges the work of others.The referencing system used in this programme is called Harvard.The reference consists of two parts:1. A citation in the text. This appears next to the information you haveused. It consists of the family name of the author followed by the year ofpublication. Each citation is matched to a reference.2. The reference goes in a reference list at the end of your work. The list isin alphabetical order. It contains the full details of all the sourcesreferred to in the text.Study Book: Management of Change16 Bradford MBAFor details on how to create your reference list, go to:http://www.bradford.ac.uk/library/help/referencing/.A note about referencing in the Study BookThis Study Book provides you with a model for citing literature andpresenting reference lists. Citations in the body of the units and in theReferences section at the end of each unit, follow the University ofBradford version of the Harvard referencing system. However, please notethat the references provided in the grey boxes at the start of each unit andat intervals throughout use a different convention, with hyperlinksembedded behind the title of the item (rather than given separately at theend of the reference) and no access date included. This is simply toincrease the flow of text in the grey boxes.Module feedback from previous studentsAt the end of the module you will receive an email with a link to aquestionnaire, requesting you to comment on the module. The feedbackyou submit regarding your learning experience will help the moduledevelopment team in their ongoing efforts to ensure the best possiblelearning experience for all students.These are examples of previous student feedback on the module.A module which is directly applicable to professional life, whateverdiscipline you are based in.Overall, I feel at peace with change now I understand it!The module was very well organised and run. The help and assistancefrom the tutor was second to none.It helped me think differently about how organisations work or dontwork as the case may be. Very useful case studies.Refreshing structure throughout the module that helped me developedexcellent insight into management of change. Particularly liked thelecture recordings that didnt just repeat the study guide or textbooklearnings, but introduced additional theory and concepts and stretchedmy learning further.The lecturer did a great job of bringing the subject to life and wasextremely responsive to questions / queries / postings. Excellentformative assessment feedback.Bradford MBA 17Unit 1:Introducing Managementof ChangeKey reading:1. Palmer et al. (2017) Chapters 1, 2 and 3Key audio and video:1. An Introduction to Management of Change (Blackboard > Module Site >Module Materials > Unit 1) Activity 1.1Other:1. Unit 1 audio and slides (Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials >Unit 1 > Audio and Slides) Activity 1.22. Unit 1 multiple-choice questions (Blackboard > Module Site > FormativeExercises > Multiple-Choice Questions > Unit 1) Activity 1.63. Unit 1 discussion forum activity (Blackboard > Module Site > DiscussionForums) Activity 1.7IntroductionRead: Palmer et al. (2017) Chapters 1, 2 and 3Organisational change is an issue that affects all of us in one way oranother because the world never stands still. As the world goes throughsocial, economic, demographic and other changes, these have knock-oneffects for organisations, which in turn must understand the implications ofthese effects on their business. Of course, organisational change does notjust occur as a result of things happening on a large-scale, almostabstract, level but also as a result of competitive pressures and changeswithin our own organisations.In this first unit, we look at the world around us and seek ways of getting togrips with whats going on and how environmental changes impact on ourorganisations. We will also consider how organisations may miss thesignals for change and the ways in which changes can be categorised. Westart at a very broad level of change in general but come to focus moreStudy Book: Management of Change18 Bradford MBAspecifically on the level of the organisation (which will be the focus of ourattention during the module).ObjectivesOn successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: recognise the factors in an organisations external environment that cancreate a need for change appreciate how these various factors can be classified and how theyrequire different kinds of responses from organisations appreciate how forces for change affect all aspects of an organisationand not just the most obvious points of impact understand how organisations might miss the signals for change appreciate the different types of change that an organisation mayundergo.Activity 1.1 watch and reflectWatch: An Introduction to Management of Change (Blackboard > ModuleSite > Module Materials > Unit 1)Activity 1.2 audio and slidesListen to: the audio for this unit and view the accompanying slides(Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 1 > Audio andSlides).Change and the world around usEven a basic awareness of current affairs and international news will tellyou that, one way or another, the world is always changing. Some of thesechanges will affect a few organisations while others will affect manyorganisations to varying degrees. Some changes will occur withoutstimulating organisations to change what theyre doing or how theyredoing it. At the same time we should recognise that change as such isneither a positive nor a negative it just is.Unit 1: Introducing Management of ChangeBradford MBA 19Activity 1.3 stop and thinkThink about your region of the world and your national economy whatare the major trends and changes occurring (at a global, regional andnational level)? What are the major trends at an industry/sector level?Activity 1.3 stop and think answer:Identifying trends at a global, regional or industrial level is important butperhaps the most important thing is to understand how changes in theexternal environment have implications for your organisation. There islimited value in discussing changes at a fairly abstract level if we cannotdraw out the implications for what we do on a day-to-day basis.Impacts of changeJust as the triggers of change will vary from organisation to organisation,the specific impacts of any change will also vary. As a result of a changewe might look again at what we do as an organisation, how we do it, howwere structured or the people and skills that we have in place. When weidentify how change impacts upon our organisation we should take care torecognise that, as interconnected mechanisms, change affecting one partof the organisation necessarily has implications for other parts of theorganisation.Leavitt (see slide 8 of the lecture slides) highlights this to us. Of course,we are not suggesting that all changes will impact on an organisation to anequal extent, but if we fail to consider the implications of changethoroughly, we risk being caught out.Study Book: Management of Change20 Bradford MBARecognising a need for changeIf we think about the triggers for change, we might wonder howorganisations can miss the signals and fail to adapt to the changingenvironment. Yet, we can identify examples of successful organisationsthat have failed to change. Why might this be so?Danny Miller (1992) has described the Icarus paradox to help explain whysuccessful organisations might not see a need to change what theyredoing after all theyve been successful to date.A quick internet search will give you an overview of the Icarus story fromGreek mythology. The basic outline is that Icarus and his father Daedaluswere being held prisoner on an island, and so Daedalus created somewings for them to fly away and escape. The wings were made of wax andfeathers so before they made their bid for freedom, Daedalus warned hisson not to fly too close to the sea or the sun. The flying plan worked verywell but Icarus, rather carried away with his flying ability, continued toclimb, taking him closer to the sun. Getting nearer to the sun, Icarus wingsstarted to warm and the wax started to melt. Clearly melted wings dontwork terribly well and Icarus fell from the sky to a watery fate.The point of this story, as Miller sees it, is that organisations can bringabout their eventual downfall by continuing to do the things that havemade them successful to date. More colloquially we might represent it asan attitude of if it aint broke, dont fix it but the view is potentiallymistaken because it rests on an underlying assumption that the context inwhich the organisation is operating remains broadly static. An examplemight be an organisation such as Kodak, which perhaps failed torecognise the digital revolution in photography and so kept delivering whatit had always delivered. This contributed to its change in fortunes, at leastin part. This is discussed further in Unit 8. Clearly, if organisations are inmore turbulent environments, assuming it is business as usual might notbe very sensible.Activity 1.4 stop and thinkQuestion 1: Think about the Icarus paradox does it apply to yourorganisation? If so, then in what ways?Question 2: Note down three high profile organisations that have fallenprey to the Icarus paradox.Unit 1: Introducing Management of ChangeBradford MBA 21Activity 1.4 stop and think answers:Responses to change pressuresIt is widely understood and agreed that organisations face a variety ofpressures to change. What is less agreed upon is how change occurs inorganisations. One camp argues for a gradual process of change, theother talks in terms of punctuated equilibrium.Gradualism holds that change occurs through incremental changes overtime, that is, change comes about by a series of changes that build onprevious changes. Through this process, gradualists argue that significantchanges will occur over time. Under this perspective, it appears thatchange is an ongoing process.In contrast, we find the idea of punctuated equilibrium. Punctuatedequilibrium holds that periods of relative stability are broken by periods ofsignificant and disruptive change. Under this view, organisations are heldrelatively constant by their deep structures. Deep structures may be seenin the organisations culture, strategy, power structures and controlsystems. The deep structures represent, for want of a better phrase, afeeling of commonsense accepting whats usually done. If the widerenvironment is changing, these stubbornly persistent ways of doing thingswill mean that the fit between organisational practice and the environmentwill become mismatched. Facing a mismatch between the way that itworks and its environment, the organisation will undergo a period of major,deep change before entering a period of relative stability and balance.Under this perspective, therefore, it appears that change is an intermittentprocess amidst periods of relative stability.Study Book: Management of Change22 Bradford MBAActivity 1.5 stop and thinkQuestion 1: Note down the nature of the deep structures (e.g. culture,strategy, power structures and control systems) in your organisation.Question 2: Reflecting on your experiences, indicate how theorganisational equilibrium has been punctuated in the past and how thisbreak in the equilibrium impacted on the organisation.Activity 1.5 stop and think answers:SummaryIn this first unit, we have sought to identify the various factors in anorganisations environment that can create a need for change. We alsosought to move beyond simply listing these pressures by characterisingthem within a basic PESTLE (political, economic, social, technology, legal,environmental) or STEEPLE (social, technology, economic,environmental, political, legal, ethical) frameworks and identify how thesepressures affect our own organisations.We have stressed the importance of recognising how changes impactupon organisations. We have identified that even though a pressure tochange might seem to primarily affect one aspect of the organisation, wemust be careful not to forget that there will be implications for otheraspects of the business.We have explored, through the Icarus paradox, how organisations mightgrow complacent through their success to date and therefore miss thesigns to change.Finally, we have started to look at competing perspectives on how changein organisations occurs. We have described gradualism and punctuatedequilibrium.Unit 1: Introducing Management of ChangeBradford MBA 23The lecture slides and audio extend the discussion of ideas concerninghow change occurs.Activity 1.6 multiple-choice questionsThe multiple-choice questions for this unit will enable you to test yourknowledge and understanding of the key concepts covered. (Blackboard >Module Site > Formative Exercises > Multiple-Choice Questions > Unit 1)Activity 1.7 discussion forum activityDiscussion Forum: Now that you have been introduced to some keytheories in relation to managing change, join the discussion with fellowstudents exploring how these theories can be applied in practice. The firstdiscussion forum activity is a gentle preliminary and involves youintroducing yourself to the other students and sharing one experience youhave had of an organisational change. You can also relate this to one ofthe theories discussed in the unit if you wish (Blackboard > Module Site >Discussion Forums > Unit 1).ReferencesMiller, D. (1992) The Icarus paradox: How exceptional companies bringabout their own downfall. Business Horizons 35(1), 2435.Palmer, I., Dunford, R. and Buchanan, D.A. (2017) ManagingOrganizational Change: A Multiple Perspective Approach. 3rd InternationalEdition. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Bradford MBA 25Unit 2:Diagnosis and Preparingfor ChangeKey reading:1. Palmer et al. (2017) Chapter 42. Hayes, J. (2014) The Theory and Practice of Change Management.4th edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, Chapter 7 (Blackboard >Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 2)3. De Caluwe, L. and Vermaak, H. (2003) Appendix 2: A color test forchange agents. In Learning to Change: A Guide for OrganizationChange Agents. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 293305(Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 2) Activity 2.24. Van Nistelrooij, A., Caluw, L. and Schouten, N. (2007) Managementconsultants colourful ways of looking at change: an explorative studyunder Dutch management consultants (Blackboard > Module Site >Module Materials > Unit 2) Activity 2.25. Royal Bank of Scotland case study (Blackboard > Module Site >Module Materials > Unit 2) Activity 2.4Other:1. Unit 2 audio and slides (Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials >Unit 2 > Audio and Slides) Activity 2.12. Unit 2 multiple-choice questions (Blackboard > Module Site > FormativeExercises > Multiple-Choice Questions > Unit 2) Activity 2.33. Unit 2 live online tutorial (Blackboard > Module Site > Collaborate) Activity 2.4IntroductionRead: Palmer et al. (2017) Chapter 4In the first unit, we looked at the kinds of forces that act uponorganisations and create pressure to change. We also identified howStudy Book: Management of Change26 Bradford MBAchange can take different forms. Now, this is all very interesting but whatdoes it mean for a particular organisation? In this unit, we focus attentionat the level of the organisation and explore ways in which we canunderstand those elements of the organisation that might need to bechanged. Taking these models for diagnosing change we can start toappreciate the task facing us.ObjectivesOn successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: understand diagnostic models relating to the organisation understand our personal preferences and biases in relation toorganisational change recognise alternative approaches to how we undertake and think aboutchange understand peoples varying capacity for coping with change.Activity 2.1 audio and slidesListen to: the audio for this unit and view the accompanying slides(Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 2 > Audio andSlides).Using models for diagnosisThe lecture slides and audio materials that accompany this unit feature anumber of models for diagnosing change. These models vary incomplexity and detail and can, at times, feel somewhat laborious to workthrough; after all we all know whats wrong with our own organisations,right? Well not necessarily. This is where models can come in handy.There are a number of reasons for using models in diagnosing change.One of the most persuasive is the argument for rigour. Using a model canforce us to consider aspects of our organisation that we might otherwiseneglect or overlook. Working through models step by step, therefore, canprovide us with a broader understanding than we might achieve by justconsidering what we already know. Thats not to say models provide uswith the single defining answer (a silver bullet). If we adopt a half-heartedapproach when using the models for analysis, it is unlikely well get muchuse out of them.Unit 2: Diagnosis and Preparing for ChangeBradford MBA 27Organisation-level diagnosisAs you will see from the textbook, there are many models to aid diagnosisat the organisation level. In the lecture slides and audio materials for thisunit, we consider Nadler and Tushmans (1980) congruence model andconsidering its complexity, it is worth providing some further detail hereregarding this model.You will see that the congruence model (Figure 2.1) can be divided intothree sections: input, transformation process and outputs. Thetransformation refers to the work that the organisation does, for exampleturning raw materials into a finished product or providing a service. It canbe used to discern whether a change is needed and, if so, what kind ofchange. It does not relate to the change process (although this modelcould be used at meta-level to analyse the organisation of the changeitself).Figure 2.1: Nadler and Tushmans congruence modelOur starting point is to understand the degree to which our outputs areachieving the objectives as laid down in our strategy (which is shaped bythe organisations inputs).Inputs are classified in terms of environment, resources and history. Environment The wider context surrounding the organisation (or thedivision) in question; the environment presents the organisation with theopportunities and constraints it faces. Resources Capital (human, financial, equipment) and technologiesthat the organisation (or division) has at its disposal. History This recognises that decisions made today are not made orimplemented in a vacuum but are influenced by what has gone before.The situation facing the organisation today is a result of previousdecisions (and mindsets) that, nevertheless, exert influence on what wedo (and can do) now.Study Book: Management of Change28 Bradford MBAThe organisations strategy shapes how it uses its resources to maximiseopportunities, and overcome constraints presented by the environment.The ability of the organisation to fulfil its strategic goals (as reflected inoutputs) represents one measure of organisational effectiveness.When it appears that the strategy is not successfully achieving theorganisations intended goals, two steps can be taken:1. Check whether the strategy is the right one is it capable of achievingthe organisations goals?2. Check the transformation process to understand whether the executionof the organisations strategy is causing the problem.Exploring the transformation process requires us to understand the terms:task, individuals, formal organisation and informal organisation. Task What is being done, understood in terms of complexity, skilldemands, predictability and interdependence. Individuals The human dimension of organisations, understood interms of knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes and so on. Formal organisation Formal management procedures and policies. Informal organisation Informal, day-to-day practices and how peopleinteract within the organisation, political considerations.Nadler and Tushman (1980) argue that, for the transformation process tobe effective, each of these elements needs to be highly congruent, hencethe name of their model. Look again at the model and note the arrowsindicating relationships between the four elements of the transformationprocess. The important thing is to understand the nature of theserelationships (the degree of congruence between the elements). Individual Formal Organisation: to what extent are needs of theindividual met by formal organisation arrangements? Individual Task: to what extent do individuals have the capacity tomeet the task demands? How far does the task fulfil the needs of theindividual? Individual Informal Organisation: to what extent do the informalorganisation arrangements fulfil the needs of the individual or make useof their talents? Task Formal Organisation: how far do formal organisationarrangements meet the needs of the task? Task Informal Organisation: how far do informal organisationarrangements enable completion of the task? Formal Informal Organisation: how far are the formal and informalaspects of the organisation consistent?Unit 2: Diagnosis and Preparing for ChangeBradford MBA 29Where we identify a lack of congruence in these relationships, we need tothen build a plan of action to address the problem. We will consider how toaddress such problems as the module progresses but for now it issufficient to have started identifying where problems may lie.Operational level getting closer to actionModels operating at the organisation level are great for providing anoverview of where further attention and action may be required. One suchmodel is provided by Johnson et al. (2011) in the form of their culturalweb (see Figure 2.2).In the process of diagnosing change the cultural web is interestingbecause it allows us to think at an operational level.Figure 2.2: The cultural web(Source: Johnson et al. 2011)When using the cultural web in this context, it is particularly interesting toconsider the soft or intangible side of the organisation. This means thatwe should pay attention to uncovering some of the unspoken but still veryreal forces in the organisation that may be at the root of the problems weare experiencing in our organisation, prompting our desire to diagnose aneed for change.Stories SymbolsPowerstructuresRituals androutinesOrganizationalstructuresControlsystemsTHEPARADIGMStudy Book: Management of Change30 Bradford MBAA few basic examples might help to illustrate how the cultural web mightbe used to help us diagnose change in our own organisation. Paradigm Thinking about the basic assumptions of our organisation,we might be able to identify some problematic attitudes about howpeople view the business we are in or what it takes to succeed in ourmarkets. Lotus, the UK-based sports car manufacturer, had a reputationfor producing fast, responsive cars for the racing purist who appreciatedinnovation in engineering and perhaps cared a little less for buildquality. The build-quality issues earned Lotus the acronym: Lots OfTrouble Usually Serious. Within the business this helped to sustain anambivalent attitude towards vehicle build-quality people will tradelower build-quality and reliability for the privilege of driving an excitingcar. Unfortunately, this attitude was not widely shared by prospectiveLotus customers for whom build-quality was a necessity and somethingthey could get from the major manufacturers that were entering Lotusmarkets. Ensuring that quality became core to the product required aparadigm shift for Lotus from vehicle design right through to vehiclefinishing. We could also think about power structures that may require change.The explicit, formal power structures as represented by theorganisational hierarchy are easy to spot and map. Less visible, butequally important, are the informal power structures. There areexamples of this in every organisation. SciRec is a niche recruitmentbusiness providing recruitment services to the analytical scienceindustry. Within this business, the recruitment consultants can exertconsiderable influence over their boss, the owner-manager of SciRec.The consultants power stems from the fact that without them thebusiness cant earn money sourcing and placing candidates. Theconsultants are also hard to replace because SciRec trades on theclose relationships it builds with its clients and managers at the clientbusinesses to provide the most suitable candidates. This means thatwhen the owner-manager wanted to alter the way that the consultantswere rewarded (owing to declining organisational performance) theconsultants successfully resisted the change because they understoodhow the current business model depended on them.To start building from analysis towards action, we need to consider howwe stand in respect of the organisations capacity to change. In the lecturerecording, we looked at the change kaleidoscope from Balogun et al.(2016). This complements the work of Johnson and colleagues by askingquestions about the change were facing and the organisation. Whenlooking at the change kaleidoscope, think about how it could be informedby the cultural web.Unit 2: Diagnosis and Preparing for ChangeBradford MBA 31Personal levelBefore we leave the topic of diagnosis and preparing for change it is worthmentioning issues that arise at the personal level. Of primary concern inthis regard is how we as managers of change view the whole process. Inlight of the influence we might exert on the diagnosis and execution ofchange projects, it is important that we surface our own views andassumptions on the change process.Activity 2.2 personal surveyRead: De Caluwe, L. and Vermaak, H. (2003) Appendix 2: A color test forchange agents, in Learning to change: A guide for organization changeagents. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 293305 (Blackboard >Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 2)Follow the instructions and complete the questionnaire.Please work quickly through the questions and answer all the questions.When you have answered all the questions, add up your scores for eachcolumn in both sections and fill in the chart at the end of the questionnaire.Please do this before reading the article by Van Nistelrooij, Caluwand Schouten (2007).Read: Van Nistelrooij, A., Caluw, L. and Schouten, N. (2007)Management consultants colourful ways of looking at change: anexplorative study under Dutch management consultants (Blackboard >Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 2)After you have completed the questionnaire and read the paper by VanNistelrooij et al., answer the following questions.Question 1: What were your strongest/most dominant colours?Question 2: Were any colours especially weak?Question 3: What do you think might be the implications of having aparticularly dominant colour when it comes to managing change?Question 4: How could increasing the focus/application of one of yourweaker colours help you in managing change?Study Book: Management of Change32 Bradford MBAActivity 2.2 personal survey answers:In the audio, we considered the positions of other individuals in respect ofchange as we tried to map the context in which we will try to bring aboutchange. This will also act as a link to the next unit in which we considerhow people might be involved in our change initiatives.Before leaving this unit, however, it is perhaps worth thinking about howwe can involve other people in the diagnosis and preparation phase. Weno doubt saw in the colours activity that we have particular preferences orbiases in terms of how we think and act in relation to change. Relating thislearning back to the use of models to diagnose needs for change inorganisations, there seems to be at least the possibility that our analysis isguided by similar preconceptions. This suggests that when using thediagnosis models we might benefit from consulting others to obtain theirviews so that we understand the issues from a variety of perspectives.Unit 2: Diagnosis and Preparing for ChangeBradford MBA 33SummaryIn this unit, we have given thought to diagnosing a need for change inorganisations and initial preparations for undertaking change.We have highlighted the ways in which models might be used to structureour assessment of organisations. We have thought about conducting ouranalysis at the level of the organisation, at operational level and at a morepersonal level. Studying the problems facing an organisation and its abilityto change from a variety of angles is important if we are to gain a roundedview of the problems facing the organisation and how we might go aboutaddressing them.We have also highlighted how we might carry our own views of changeinto the diagnosis process, which suggests that there could be benefit ininvolving others as part of the diagnosis and preparation phase. Thetheme of involving others in change is something we will pick up in greaterdetail in Unit 3.Activity 2.3 multiple-choice questionsThe multiple-choice questions will enable you to test your knowledge andunderstanding of the key concepts covered so far (Blackboard module site> Formative Exercises > Multiple-Choice Questions > Unit 2)Activity 2.4 live online tutorialRead: Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) case study (Blackboard > ModuleSite > Module Materials > Unit 2)Read the case study and note down your answers to the questions posedat the end of the case study. This case study will form the basis of a liveonline tutorial. Please be ready to discuss the answers to the questionsposed during the tutorial. Your module tutor will post details of when thistutorial will take place.Live online tutorial: To access the tutorial, please go to BlackboardModule Site > Collaborate. For support and information about Collaborate,please go to the Blackboard Collaborate: Original Experience help site at:https://en-us.help.blackboard.com/Collaborate/v12.ReferencesBalogun, J., Hope Hailey, V. and Gustafsson, S. (2016) ExploringStrategic Change. 4th Edition. London: Pearson Education.Study Book: Management of Change34 Bradford MBADe Caluwe, L. and Vermaak, H. (2003) Appendix 2: A color test forchange agents, in Learning to Change: A Guide for Organization ChangeAgents. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 293305.Hayes, J. (2014) The Theory and Practice of Change Management. 4thEdition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Johnson, G., Whittington, R. and Scholes, S.K. (2011) ExploringCorporate Strategy. 9th Edition. Harlow: Prentice-Hall.Nadler, D.A. and Tushman, M.L. (1980) A congruence model fororganizational assessment. In Lawler, E.E., Nadler, D.A. and Cammann,C. (editors) Organizational Assessment. New York: Wiley.Palmer, I., Dunford, R. and Buchanan, D.A. (2017) ManagingOrganizational Change: A Multiple Perspective Approach. 3rd InternationalEdition. Boston: McGraw-Hill.Bradford MBA 35Unit 3:Implementing ChangeKey reading:1. Palmer et al. (2017) Chapters 8, 9 and 102. Ford, J.D., Ford, L.W. and DAmelio, A. (2008) Resistance to change:the rest of the story (Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials >Unit 3)Other:1. Unit 3 audio and slides (Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials >Unit 3 > Audio and Slides) Activity 3.12. Unit 3 multiple-choice questions (Blackboard > Module Site > FormativeExercises > Multiple-Choice Questions > Unit 3) Activity 3.33. Unit 3 discussion forum activity (Blackboard > Module Site > DiscussionForums) Activity 3.4IntroductionRead: Palmer et al. (2017) Chapters 8, 9 and 10So far in the module we have looked at the kinds of factors that influenceorganisations to undertake or undergo change. One of the main themesyou will have detected is the sense that there can be many differentdrivers of change and these will affect organisations in different ways inother words, not all change is the same.With this in mind, we turn our attention in this third unit to considerapproaches to implementing change. As you will see, there are some highprofile models associated with change but we will emphasise theimportance of selecting the approach to change which best fits ourorganisations context.Following on from this we will also spend some time considering the issueof resistance to organisational change. We cover resistance in this uniton implementing change because meaningful engagement with the issuessurrounding resistance is relatively easier by acting in the early phases ofchange rather than trying to respond to problems once they have arisen.Study Book: Management of Change36 Bradford MBAObjectivesOn successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: recognise the strengths and limitations of change managementapproaches to managing organisational change recognise the strengths and limitations of organisation developmentapproaches to managing organisational change recognise how a contingency approach may offer a useful way forwardin managing organisational change understand traditional perspectives on resistance to change appreciate the value of non-traditional perspectives on resistance tochange.Activity 3.1 audio and slidesListen to: the audio for this unit and view the accompanying slides(Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 3 > Audio andSlides).Approaches to change and n-stepsRead: Palmer et al. (2017), 325330Organisations and managers that recognise a need to change will oftenseek some form of guidance to help them structure their change effortsand a quick survey of popular management literature will revealnumerous books competing for their attention. Many of these popularapproaches to managing change will take the form of a road map or recipeprescribing a certain number of steps towards successful change.In the lecture audio, you will have noticed that we looked at one suchmodel by Kirkpatrick (2001) but we could equally draw on a number ofsimilar models see, for example, pages 325330 of Palmer et al. (2017).These models have some common characteristics in that they aresomewhat generic (i.e. they represent a standardised approach tochange), they prescribe the steps you must follow in managing changeand they caution that deviation from the prescribed path could end in failedchange.Models of this kind are understandably attractive to busy managers; afterall they offer a degree of certainty in what is often a highly ambiguousphase. The models are easy to follow and outline the basic steps thatneed considering when thinking about how to effect change. However,such models are not without their critics.Unit 3: Implementing ChangeBradford MBA 37David Collins (1998) has called such models n-step approaches tochange because he feels that the number of prescribed steps is asomewhat arbitrary distinction between models that are fundamentally thesame. Collins, among others, is critical of what some see as theover-simplification of change processes as represented by these models.If you look at the models, you will note how limited attention is given to thepeople issues surrounding change and, in particular, how these issuesmight be managed. Such models might therefore be seen as offering afalse sense of security to managers seeking guidance on how to approachorganisational change.Organisation developmentOrganisation development (or OD) is often cited as an alternativeapproach to the more prescriptive models of change management. OD isreally a broad perspective or mindset under which a variety of approachesand techniques might be gathered. The general perspective is that fororganisations to change successfully a detailed diagnosis of the wholeorganisation is required so that the underlying problems can be fullyunderstood. Once a thorough diagnosis has taken place, then a series oflong-term interventions can be implemented aimed at changingbehaviours and mindsets.OD approaches to change are often associated with the work of KurtLewin (1947) and his unfreeze move re-freeze process. Although wemight question the extent to which organisations are ever in such a steadystate that we could describe them as frozen, we might recognise thatdeeply embedded practices and mindsets can be relatively fixed and hardto shift.While proponents argue that OD offers a means of achieving deepchange, critics point out that the approaches take too long for mostorganisations and provide insufficient practical how to guidance tomanagers.Resistance to changeWhen considering our approach (or approaches) to organisational change,we also need to think about the prospect of the dreaded resistance tochange. Views on resistance vary (as you will have heard in the lecture),but it is generally not considered a desirable feature of organisationalchange efforts.Study Book: Management of Change38 Bradford MBAActivity 3.2 stop and thinkThink about a recent occasion when you encountered resistance to anidea and note down answers to the following questions.Question 1: What was the situation?Question 2: What was the nature of the resistance?Question 3: Why did it arise?Question 4: How did you feel?Activity 3.2 stop and think answers:It is a natural response to feel that those who disagreed with your idea (orresisted your suggestion) are awkward trouble makers and thatresistance to a proposed change is something to be eliminated. However,is this the only way in which resistance can be understood?Read: Ford, J.D., Ford, L.W. and DAmelio, A. (2008) Resistance tochange: the rest of the story (Blackboard > Module Site > ModuleMaterials > Unit 3)Recently, academics have urged reconsideration of the notion ofresistance. Ford et al. (2008) are among those to argue for a rejection orreconsideration of traditional, negative views on resistance. Ford et al.sarguments, which we cover in the lecture audio and which you shouldhave read about, explore alternative views on resistance to change. Theyhighlight in various ways that demonising those who disagree with ourUnit 3: Implementing ChangeBradford MBA 39change plans or challenge our associated actions can actually workagainst the implementation of the changes we are charged with putting inplace.SummaryIn this unit, you have been introduced to the dominant approaches tomanaging organisational change along with some of the problems inherentwith these dominant perspectives. We used the work of Huy to explore analternative to the dominant perspectives and think about how the nature ofthe change we are facing and the context in which we are operating canhave a bearing on the kinds of approach we take at any given time.Following on from this, we turned our attention to look at the thorny issueof resistance to change. We noted how an overtly negative attitudetowards what we perceive as resistance can ultimately thwart successfulimplementation of changes, which should be our primary focus. Theseissues are discussed in greater detail in the lecture materials and audio soit is vital that you consult these resources.Activity 3.3 multiple-choice questionsThe multiple-choice questions will enable you to test your knowledge andunderstanding of the key concepts covered so far. (Blackboard > ModuleSite > Formative Exercises > Multiple-Choice Questions > Unit 3)Activity 3.4 discussion forumDiscussion forum: Now that you have been introduced to some keytheories in relation to implementing change, join the discussion with fellowstudents exploring how these theories can be applied in practice.(Blackboard > Module Site > Discussion Forums > Unit 3)Remember: you will need to add a screen shot of one of your posts to thisforum, as evidence of participation, into a document you submit viaTurnitin when you submit your assignment.Additional learning resourcesTwo additional readings are available if you wish to learn more about theissues covered in this unit an article by Huy (2001) and one by Piderit(2000). (Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 3 >Additional Learning Resources)Study Book: Management of Change40 Bradford MBAWe have mentioned the article by Huy (2001) already and we covered thiswork in the lecture audio. The article is interesting but you only need readit in full if you have a particular interest in the detail of Huys ideas.The article by Piderit (2000) covers materials on the nature of resistanceto change.ReferencesCollins, D. (1998) Organizational Change: Sociological Perspectives.London: Routledge.Ford, J.D., Ford, L.W. and DAmelio, A. (2008) Resistance to change: therest of the story. Academy of Management Review 33, 36277.Huy, Q.N. (2001) Time, temporal capability, and planned change.Academy of Management Review 26(4), 601623.Lewin, K. (1947) Frontiers in Group Dynamics: Concept, Method andReality in Social Sciences; Social Equilibria and Social Change. HumanRelations 1, 541.Kirkpatrick, D.L. (2001) Managing Change Effectively: Approaches,Methods, and Case Examples. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.Palmer, I., Dunford, R. and Buchanan, D.A. (2017) ManagingOrganizational Change: A Multiple Perspective Approach. 3rd InternationalEdition. Boston: McGraw-Hill.Piderit, S.K. (2000) Rethinking resistance and recognizing ambivalence: amultidimensional view of attitudes toward an organizational change.Academy of Management Review 5(4), 783794.Bradford MBA 41Unit 4:Enabling ChangeKey reading:1. Caldwell, R. (2003) Models of change agency: a fourfold classification(Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 4)2. Buchanan, D.A. (2003) Demands, instabilities, manipulations, careers:The lived experience of driving change (Blackboard > Module Site >Module Materials > Unit 4)3. Doyle, M. (2002) From change novice to change expert (Blackboard >Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 4)4. Implementing Change in AEC case study (Blackboard > Module Site> Module Materials > Unit 4) Activity 4.3Other:1. Unit 4 audio and slides (Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials >Unit 4 > Audio and Slides) Activity 4.12. Unit 4 multiple-choice questions (Blackboard > Module Site > FormativeExercises > Multiple-Choice Questions > Unit 4) Activity 4.23. Unit 4 live online tutorial (Blackboard > Module Site > Collaborate) Activity 4.3IntroductionManaging change can require the engagement and input of many peoplebeyond the manager tasked with the overall project. This introduces anumber of challenges for the manager and those who are selected toimplement the change. In this unit, we focus on how managers of changecan enable their less experienced colleagues to manage change. We dothis through setting out some technical tools for change a range oftechniques to help structure the approach of change agents to the tasksin hand. We then go further to consider the people side of change agencyand we think about how to select and support the change agents throughthe challenges of managing change.Study Book: Management of Change42 Bradford MBAObjectivesOn successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: appreciate the distinction between directing and enabling change engage with technical tools for the change process engage with the human side of change agency appreciate how to select and support novice change agents.Activity 4.1 audio and slidesListen to: the audio for this unit and view the accompanying slides(Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 4 > Audio andSlides).Change and the challenge of delegationIf you find yourself in charge of a change project you will undoubtedly feelthe pressure to deliver. Furthermore, you are likely to become acutelyaware of how managing change can be a demanding and complexprocess in which you are trying to achieve the goals set for you by seniormanagement while seeking to obtain the buy-in from those affected by thechange. If change proves to be challenging for people with a degree ofmanagement experience and success behind them, how might it be forthose who are relatively inexperienced and who may lack experience ofimplementing change? It is reasonable to assume that a proportion ofthese change novices will naturally struggle to deal with the demands ofchange.However change projects are rarely the sole preserve of one person,and there are good reasons for involving a range of people in the process.The trouble for the manager put in charge of a change project is thelikelihood that the other people involved who are required to helpimplement the change are likely to struggle with the pressures andchallenges of change. So, you are faced with something of a dilemma onthe one hand you need to involve a range of people but on the other handyou realise that many of them will not yet be proven change agents and somay put your project at risk. What can you do?One option is to delegate and involve people but to do so in such a waythat any novices are fully supported in the steps that they take. If you canensure that the novices are being systematic and rigorous in their planningand interventions, then you might stand a fighting chance of succeeding inthe change project.Unit 4: Enabling ChangeBradford MBA 43Read: Caldwell, R. (2003) Models of change agency: a fourfoldclassification (Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 4)Customised empowerment and technicaltoolsIn the lecture audio, we considered the notion of customisedempowerment (basically giving people freedom within clearly definedlimits) to help structure change tasks for the novice. The idea is that as thechange manager you retain a degree of oversight on what they are doingwhile not needing to stand over their every move.In the lecture slides that accompany this unit various tools are introducedthat could help you and your staff adopt a customised empowermentapproach. The key point is that each tool should be worked throughsystematically because this ensures that all angles are covered.Recognising the people side of changeIdentifying helpful tools and techniques to support aspects of the changeprocess is important but it is clearly not the only major consideration to beborne in mind when delegating change duties. We also need to have dueregard for the pressures change novices will encounter as they take uptheir change roles.Read:1. Buchanan, D.A. (2003) Demand, instabilities, manipulations, careers:The lived experience of driving change (Blackboard > Module Site >Module Materials > Unit 4)2. Doyle, M. (2002) From change novice to change expert (Blackboard >Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 4)The work of Buchanan and Doyle gives us an appreciation of how peoplemight experience their role in change projects. This raises questionsaround how we select people (assuming we have the luxury of such achoice) and how we support them through the change process.Given the opportunity to select our change agents, we should opt for thosepeople who are already in jobs that require self-reliance and people whoenjoy a challenge. In many ways, this much is obvious but alongside thiswe must remember that to be effective change agents over the course of achange process these people will need support.In particular, we might find ourselves needing to protect the change agentsfrom themselves and their determination to succeed. If change agents arespending a lot of time at work, their outside relationships and leisureStudy Book: Management of Change44 Bradford MBAactivities can suffer. There is an important role to play in creating somesocial down time within the workplace or change role for these people togain some respite from the demands of their change role even if theyseem not to need it.SummaryIn this unit, we have considered the idea of enabling change with a focuson the role played by novice change agents. Recognising that utilisingnovices in a change programme can be both necessary and risky, we setout ways in which their efforts can be channelled towards systematicconsideration of problems and potential solutions. By following suchtechniques, even those who are unused to playing an active role in theimplementation of change can be empowered without being left to sinkunder the swell of new challenges they are likely to encounter.Having considered the ways in which customised empowerment might bedeployed to manage delegation in change, we then turned our attention tothink about the people side of change. Drawing on the work of Buchananand Doyle we have gained an appreciation of the personal challengesfacing change agents, especially those who are relative novices. Welooked at ways of selecting and supporting change agents so that thosewe put into change agent roles do not suffer the full negative effects thatcan be associated with involvement in change efforts.Activity 4.2 multiple-choice questionsThe multiple-choice questions will enable you to test your knowledge andunderstanding of the key concepts covered so far. (Blackboard > ModuleSite > Formative Exercises > Multiple-Choice Questions > Unit 4)Activity 4.3 live online tutorialRead: Implementing Change in AEC case study (Blackboard > ModuleSite > Module Materials > Unit 4) Activity 4.3Note down your answers to the questions posed at the end of the casestudy.Be ready to discuss the answers to the questions during the live onlinetutorial. Your module tutor will post details of when this tutorial will takeplace.Live online tutorial: To access the tutorial, please go to Blackboard >Module Site > Collaborate. For support and information about Collaborate,Unit 4: Enabling ChangeBradford MBA 45please go to the Blackboard Collaborate: Original Experience help site at:https://en-us.help.blackboard.com/Collaborate/v12.ReferencesBuchanan, D.A. (2003) Demands, instabilities, manipulations, careers:The lived experience of driving change. Human Relations 56(6), 663684.Caldwell, R. (2003) Models of change agency: a fourfold classification.British Journal of Management 14, 131142.Doyle, M. (2002) From change novice to change expert: issues oflearning, development and support. Personnel Review 31(4), 465481. Bradford MBA 47Unit 5:Communicating ChangeKey reading:1. Palmer et al. (2017) Chapter 72. Boje (1991) The storytelling organization: A study of story performancein an office-supply firm (Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials >Unit 5)3. Ziegler, C. (2011) Nokia CEO Stephen Elop rallies troops in brutallyhonest burning platform memo? engadget.com (Blackboard > ModuleSite > Module Materials > Unit 5)Key audio and video:1. BT Lets Talk (2012) Chinese whispers BT One. YouTube, 8 October(Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 5) Activity 5.2Other:1. Unit 5 audio and slides (Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials >Unit 5 > Audio and Slides) Activity 5.12. Unit 5 multiple-choice questions (Blackboard > Module Site > FormativeExercises > Multiple-Choice Questions > Unit 5) Activity 5.63. Unit 5 marked formative assessment (Blackboard > Module Site >Formative Exercises > Marked Formative Assessment > Unit 5) Activity 5.74. Unit 5 discussion forum activity (Blackboard > Module Site > DiscussionForums) Activity 5.8IntroductionRead: Palmer et al. (2017) Chapter 7Communication is important in organisational change. Go into anyorganisation and ask whether communication is done well and, in manyinstances, you can be confident that people will say no. Clearly thisrepresents something of a problem! In this unit, we will consider the role ofcommunication in organisational change from a range of perspectives.Study Book: Management of Change48 Bradford MBAWe will look at what we can do as managers to communicate effectively,and we will consider the idea that change is an exercise in communication.In addition to this we will also consider the role played by stories duringorganisational change. Finally, we will have a think about how silence canarise in organisations and why this absence of communication can be amajor problem.ObjectivesOn successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: appreciate the importance of communication in organisational change understand organisational change as an exercise in communication recognise the role of stories in organisational change appreciate the causes and negative impacts of organisational silence.Activity 5.1 audio and slidesListen to: the audio for this unit and view the accompanying slides(Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 5 > Audio andSlides).Activity 5.2 watch and reflectWatch: BT Lets Talk (2012) Chinese whispers BT One. YouTube,8 October 2012 (Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 5)This is an advertisement from British Telecom. The film is simple, childlikealmost but the chances are it will demonstrate a key point regardingcommunication and how a message can become distorted.Communication and change why does itmatter?Communication matters in organisational change for a number of reasons.If we do not have effective means for expressing our views, or for listeningto the views of others, how can we know when things are going wrong orcould be done better? If people are talking at cross-purposes it becomesvery tricky, if not impossible, to hold meaningful discussions or debatesaround key ideas. How can we get people excited about change ormotivated to join in if we cant effectively convey to them the need forchange and how their contribution will be valuable or necessary?Furthermore, if we are not communicating effectively, how can we keeptabs on the progress (or otherwise) we are making in our change efforts.Unit 5: Communicating ChangeBradford MBA 49Clearly, without means of effective communication, change becomes aneven bigger challenge.Change as a communication problemIf we accept, as we should, that communication is central to organisationalchange, it might make sense to cast change as a communication problem(or issue). This is the insight offered by Ford and Ford (1995) in theirconceptual paper on communication and change.Ford and Ford propose that we think of intentional organisational changeas occurring through a series of conversations. We covered this in thelecture briefly (see lecture slides and audio for this unit), but now we canoutline the four principal stages of their framework in greater detail.Ford and Ford identify that for change efforts to get underway initiativeconversations must be held, whereby problems and suggestions foralternative ways of working are surfaced. While necessary, starting adiscussion on change is only the very first step because if it is notdeveloped then an initiative conversation could simply be a moaningsession in which people complain about things not being great so asubsequent step is required to advance an initiative conversation.Conversations for understanding are about generating a sharedunderstanding of precisely what is wrong and what an improved situationwould look like. Clearly, if a group of people have differing understandingsof the problem and contrasting views of what success looks like thenmaking progress is going to be tough.Shared understanding needs to be leveraged and converted into action,which is where conversations for performance come in to play.Conversations for action are used to allocate tasks, accept responsibilityand create actions that lead towards successful achievement of theshared, desired outcomes. These types of conversations can also be usedto correct actions that are not driving the change effort forward, so forexample if someone has promised to undertake actions that they are notnow doing, there is an important role for a conversation that gets themacting in the required manner once again.Finally, and importantly, we have conversations for closure. Althoughthese might be easily forgotten in the success (or exhaustion!) of aconcluded change effort, it is important to tell people when change effortsare over and to thank them for their contributions.Ford and Ford argue that if these conversations are not completed thenchange will break down. The lecture audio considers the reasons whychange may stall if these conversations do not take place. For managersin organisations the value of Ford and Fords framework is that itStudy Book: Management of Change50 Bradford MBAstimulates reflection on the stage of the change programme and helps topromote thoughts about what a sensible next step might be.Communication strategies and skillsWith communication such an important part of organisational change,what can be done to improve our communication in such situations?The lecture audio identified some of the important frameworks to guideyour thinking in relation to effective communication but, for now, we wouldlike to focus on the work of Dutton et al. (2001) and their take on upwardselling.Dutton et al. recognise that organisational changes require resources andin many instances this might pose a major challenge for middle managers,who may possess relatively limited influence to access such resources.Clearly this is a potential source of frustration for middle managers, whomight be unable to enact the changes they would like to implement.If middle managers can win the buy-in of senior executives, then perhapsthey can access the resources required to implement the changes theydesire, but how can they attain the senior management buy-in required?Dutton et al. discuss the notion of upward selling as a means throughwhich middle managers might be able to access support and resources fortheir plans. So, what seemed to work in Dutton et al.s study?When it came to presenting the idea, certain approaches or factorsseemed to aid success: Linking it to the business plan highlighting close ties between thechange being suggested and elements of the business strategy;presenting a significant evidence base to legitimise the proposedchange whilst using appropriate organisational terminology. Presenting the idea as an incremental change presenting elements ofthe idea over time so that it doesnt appear too overwhelming/big; theaim is to break down the overall size of the change so it is digestible forthe executive (and might also limit the size of risk involved in thedecision to support the change if a $10m project can be divided into10 $1m investments then if the project fails to deliver the potentiallosses are reduced).It is also helpful if the proposed change(s) are bundled with other issuesregarded as important in the organisation. Profits tying change issues to boosting profit, market share andorganisational imageUnit 5: Communicating ChangeBradford MBA 51 Involvement of executives and peers involving (relevant) others whoare higher in the organisational hierarchy in order to help sell the ideabeing presented. Engaging peers is associated with successful ideasselling as it appears that the idea has broad support or is achievable.Again, this may reduce the perceived risk for the potential sponsoringexecutives as it is not their call alone to back the project.Activity 5.3 stop and thinkTake a change you might be working on or would like to propose in yourorganisation and think how you would use upward selling to garnersupport for your idea from senior managers. Consider your upward sellingstrategy and note down the principal components/actions in the box below.Activity 5.3 stop and think answer:Stories, organisations and changeRead: Boje, D.M. (1991) The storytelling organization: A study of storyperformance in an office-supply firm (Blackboard > Module Site > ModuleMaterials > Unit 5)In recent years, researchers have spent time studying the stories peopletell in organisations about their working lives. This development has beendescribed as the narrative turn (Czarniawska 2004) in organisationstudies and offers rich opportunities for exploring many aspects oforganisations and work.Study Book: Management of Change52 Bradford MBAAn important author in this respect is David Boje (1991). Drawing onBojes work we can use stories in relation to organisational change.In the first instance, we might use organisational stories to understandsomething of the organisations or departments in which we are seeking toeffect change. Among other things, stories that people tell about formermanagers (or management regimes) can help us to understand the valuesof an organisation and how the organisation has developed to its currentstate any successes or failures that loom large in the organisationspsyche. Understanding these facets of the organisation can help us indesigning our change approach by indicating themes we might want to tapinto or avoid like the plague!Secondly, organisational stories might offer one means through which achange can be communicated within an organisation. You might find away of representing the challenges facing an organisation or departmentin such a way that the problem is presented in a particular light. When youread Stephen Elops memo for the Unit 5 activity-based discussion forum,you will see how he is using a story to not only frame the problems facingthe organisation but also to frame the problem in such a way that justifieshis (radical) solution. You might also use stories to establish your owncredibility to undertake a change by, for instance, relating your experienceof similar situations that you brought to a successful outcome.Activity 5.4 stop and thinkTask 1: Pause for a moment and think about the stories you hear (or tellyourself) in your current organisation. What are the stories about? Do theyfocus on particular, prominent events in the organisation history? Are thereheroes or villains in the stories? What might those stories tell us about thevalues or mindset of the organisation? Note down your thoughts andopinions.Task 2: Read the brief story below relating to H&M, the well-knownEuropean retailer, and note down what key messages are conveyed in thestory.Sometime during the seventies, Erling Persson the founder of H&Mwas at a new store opening in Sweden. Such was the success of theopening that large queues quickly built up and people were grumblingabout the slow service. No one had anticipated such a volume of peopleand there werent enough tills. Rather than moaning about the lack ofplanning, Persson emptied out his ever-present cigar box, took somechange and started to serve people. (Ind 2007: 139)Unit 5: Communicating ChangeBradford MBA 53Activity 5.4 stop and think answers:SilenceThe final area well look at in this unit is the theme of organisationalsilence. Morrison and Milliken (2000) argue that organisational silencearises when employees withhold their views about an organisation. Theauthors identify that managers actions and beliefs are responsible fororganisational silence. Specifically, Morrison and Milliken argue thatmanagers fear of criticism and their beliefs that management knows bestand employees are only self-interested actors makes them unreceptive tonegative news. Employees soon learn that managers are disinterested inwhat they have to say, so they stop attempting to make their voices heard hence, organisational silence.Organisational silence creates a number of problems, especially withrespect to organisational change. Too much apparent consensus is afundamental problem as managers might not benefit from hearing/learningabout alternative (and potentially challenging) perspectives on how thingsare done. Whilst managers may not like being questioned (andalternatives being put forward), this is not necessarily a bad thing as it mayultimately lead to improved organisational practices.Activity 5.5 stop and thinkReflect on whether you, as a manager, have ever created organisationalsilence (however unwittingly). How do you think it came about and whatStudy Book: Management of Change54 Bradford MBAeffect do you think it had on your staff and the organisation moregenerally? (You might also want to think about whether you have everexperienced organisational silence from the employee perspective.)Once you have reflected on your experience of organisational silence,note down your thoughts in the box below.Activity 5.5 stop and think answer:SummaryIn this unit, we have covered the role of communication in organisationalchange. We started by trying to recognise the importance ofcommunication in organisations generally but also specifically in relation tochange. We then spent some time considering change as acommunication problem as breakdowns in communication, or ineffectivecommunication, can lead to failed change efforts. We then thought aboutthe utility of upward selling, an important skill set for middle managerswho may need senior/executive support to enact certain change initiatives.Finally, we looked at the role of stories and of organisational silence inorganisational change.Unit 5: Communicating ChangeBradford MBA 55Activity 5.6 multiple-choice questionsThe multiple-choice questions for this unit will enable you to test yourknowledge and understanding of the key concepts covered. (Blackboard >Module Site > Formative Exercises > Multiple-Choice Questions > Unit 5)Activity 5.7 marked formative assessmentThis formative assessment takes the form of the draft case study that youare working on for your coursework assignment.If you have not already made a start on this, go back to the experience ofchange you shared in the first activity-based discussion forum or chooseanother one. Develop this into a draft of your case study. This should bebetween 500 and 1,000 words the finished case study in yourcoursework assignment will be between 800 and 1,200 words. Rememberthough that charts and tables are not included in the word count and thesemight be helpful, for example, to show role relationships or timelines.The case study is NOT an essay. It should tell the story of the changethat you experienced or witnessed or were involved in. (If you do not havea suitable example from your own experience, please email your moduleleader to discuss an alternative way of completing the assignment and theformative assessment.)Things to think about: What happened? What was the context? What kindof organisation was involved? What was the culture of the organisation?Was the history of change important in this example or not? Who are thekey stakeholders? Over what period did the change take place? Weredistinct stages or phases involved? What were the key milestones? Whatwas the nature of the change? How was it implemented? How was thechange communicated? Was there any resistance to change? If so, whathappened? What was the overall outcome of the change (if it has beencompleted)? How was it evaluated?These are just ideas to think about you do not need to include all ofthese. In fact, it can be effective to choose only a small number of thingsto focus on. There are also many other aspects of change not mentionedhere that you may wish to include.It is wise to develop your case study alongside thinking about thequestions you will pose and the model answers you will provide. Forexample, if you want one of the answers to include an analysis of theculture of the organisation, you may not wish to identify explicitly thenature of the culture in the case study but rather give the reader hints andclues to be used in the analysis.Study Book: Management of Change56 Bradford MBAActivity 5.8 discussion forumDiscussion forum: Now that you have been introduced to some keytheories in relation to communicating change, join the discussion withfellow students exploring how these theories can be applied in practice.(Blackboard > Module Site > Discussion Forums > Unit 5)Remember: you will need to add a screen shot of one of your posts to thisforum, as evidence of participation, into a document you submit viaTurnitin when you submit your assignment.ReferencesBoje, D.M. (1991) The storytelling organization: a study of storyperformance in an office-supply firm. Administrative Science Quarterly31(1), 106126.BT Lets Talk (2012) Chinese Whispers BT One. YouTube, 8 October.www.youtube.com/watch?v=qyAhDdFDmX4 Accessed 05 March 2017.Czarniawska, B. (2004) Narratives in Social Science Research. London:Sage.Dutton, J.E., Ashford, S.J., ONeill, R.M. and Lawrence, K.A. (2001)Moves that matter: issue selling and organizational change. Academy ofManagement Journal 44(4), 716736.Ford, J.D. and Ford, L.W. (1995) The role of conversations in producingintentional change in organizations. Academy of Management Review20(3), 541570.Ind, N. (2007) Living the Brand: How to Transform Every Member of YourOrganization into a Brand Champion. London: Kogan Page.Morrison, E.W. and Milliken, F.J. (2000) Organizational silence: a barrierto change and development in a pluralistic world. Academy ofManagement Review 25(4), 706725.Ziegler, C. (2011) Nokia CE Stephen Elop rallies troops in brutally honestburning platform memo? engadget.com.www.engadget.com/2011/02/08/nokia-ceo-stephen-elop-rallies-troops-inbrutally-honest-burnin/ Accessed 5 March 2017.Bradford MBA 57Unit 6:Culture and ChangeKey reading:1. Schein, E.H. (1984) Coming to a new awareness of organizationalculture (Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 6)2. McCabe, D. (2010) Taking the long view: A cultural analysis of memoryas resisting and facilitating organizational change (Blackboard > ModuleSite > Module Materials > Unit 6)3. Harris, L.C. and Ogbonna, E. (1998) Employee responses to culturechange efforts (Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 6)4. Culture, Cadbury and Kraft case study (Blackboard > Module Site >Module Materials > Unit 6) Activity 6.5Other:1. Unit 6 audio and slides (Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials >Unit 6 > Audio and Slides) Activity 6.12. Unit 6 multiple-choice questions (Blackboard > Module Site > FormativeExercises > Multiple-Choice Questions > Unit 6) Activity 6.43. Unit 6 live online tutorial (Blackboard > Module Site > Collaborate) Activity 6.5IntroductionRead: Schein, E.H. (1984) Coming to a new awareness of organizationalculture (Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 6)Deciding where and when to deal with culture on a module addressingmanagement of change poses something of a challenge because itpervades all aspects of an organisation (and therefore the topic ingeneral). Addressing culture too early may mean that you haveinsufficient grounding in change to really make connections betweenculture and change; deal with it too late, however, and theres a risk thatmanaging change has been understood as somehow culture-neutral. So,while in this module the issue of culture is dealt with in Unit 6, we mustntforget that culture relates to all other aspects of the module.Study Book: Management of Change58 Bradford MBARead a popular management book and you are likely to find culture beingpresented as a thing that appears consistent across organisations. Thisperspective simplifies the notion of culture in organisations denying thecomplexity of the issue. In reality, we tend to find that within a singleorganisation there wont be one single culture but instead a series ofsub-cultures and even competing cultures. The simplified perspectiveassociated with a single organisational culture also makes changingculture appear relatively straightforward, as though you are moving fromone relatively clear state to another. In this unit, we will think about culturein a bit more detail and then use our newly attained understanding ofculture to consider the extent to which organisations cultures can bechanged (and how).ObjectivesOn successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: understand the nature of organisational culture and how it functions inrelation to change appreciate the culture(s) of your current organisation consider the extent to which culture can be changed by management appreciate the difficulties associated with change and organisationalculture.Activity 6.1 audio and slidesListen to: the audio for this unit and view the accompanying slides(Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 6 > Audio andSlides).What is organisational culture?We talk a lot about culture in organisations. Many of us have heard aboutcultures of complacency or a can-do culture but what are we actuallytalking about? What is organisational culture?Activity 6.2 stop and thinkJust take five minutes to consider what you think organisational culture is.Dont write more than a couple of sentences but try to capture the essenceof your view. Note down your answer in the box below.Unit 6: Culture and ChangeBradford MBA 59Activity 6.2 stop and think answer:In the lecture audio, we have noted a few different ways of definingorganisational culture (which you may have added to by completingActivity 6.2) but for now we look at Scheins (1984) classic definition.Although not always cited explicitly, Scheins definition has been used inmany subsequent attempts to define organisational culture. Schein statesthat culture is:the pattern of basic assumptions that a given group has invented,discovered, or developed in learning to cope with its problems ofexternal adaptation and internal integration, and that have worked wellenough to be considered valid, and, therefore, to be taught to newmembers as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation tothose problems (Schein 1984: 3).When Schein talks of external adaptation and internal integration he isdiscussing, respectively, how organisations relate to their externalenvironment and internal environment. What is most interesting in thisquotation is the notion that culture is built up over time, developed fromthings that have worked well enough to be considered valid; that is, weare not dealing with something which has been entirely deliberately craftedand implemented but rather something that has evolved over time. Thisunderstanding carries some implications for our ambitions to changeculture and well come back to this later.What does culture do?If we stay with Scheins definition for a while longer, we can use it to helpconsider the question about what culture actually does in organisations. Ifculture is transmitted to new members of an organisation, or part of anorganisation, then it is serving a function of giving those people a contextin which to operate. In this case, culture serves to indicate what kinds ofStudy Book: Management of Change60 Bradford MBAconduct are appropriate (and inappropriate) in that environment, howthose people should relate to others within that environment and how theyshould view matters arising within that environment (among other things).By providing a sense of the context in which they are operating, culturescan provide people with a basis from which to understand where they arein an organisation. Perhaps almost implicitly, people come to learnappropriate responses, emotions and actions to particular events.Recognising culturesIf we want to understand cultures then we must have some way ofrecognising cultures and their components. Having read the paper bySchein, you will know that he thinks of culture in terms of three levels:artefacts, values and basic assumptions.At this point you might want to refresh your memory as to what each ofthese levels concerns and how they are defined.Activity 6.3 stop and thinkTake Scheins three levels of organisational culture and analyse theorganisation you currently work for. Given the limitations of trying toassess your own organisations culture, you may want to pair up withanother student on the module and swap organisations so that youinterview each other about your organisations and produce an overviewof the other students organisations culture and vice-versa. Alternatively,perhaps seek out a new starter in your organisation and ask about theculture. Newcomers should have a sense of the differences between theirnew organisation and their former one. This will allow them to be wellplaced to offer some insights. (However, please bear in mind that in thisexercise you are unlikely to capture the culture of your organisation butrather a particular view of it depending on who you ask.)Once you have completed the exercise, please make some summarynotes below.Activity 6.3 stop and think answers:Unit 6: Culture and ChangeBradford MBA 61Culture and changeIf culture influences how members of an organisation understand theorganisational world around them, then it follows that culture will also havean influence on how people perceive and respond to change.Organisations where new ways of working and frequent innovation are thenorm may present cultures where change is relatively easy to bring about.In many cases, members of these organisations may instigate changesthemselves change could be part of how things are done in thatorganisation. In contrast, of course, if a culture prevails in which alternativeapproaches to tasks are treated with suspicion then the culture inoperation might slow or obstruct changes.Pearce and Osmond (1996) pay particular attention to the idea oforganisational culture in relation to change in their ALPS model. The ALPSmodel concerns trying to manage change in ways that are consistent withthe dominant culture of an organisation.ALPS stands for access leverage points and Pearce and Osmond (1996:23) argue that these are critical aspects of the culture that can often aid,but sometimes impede the introduction and management of organizationalchange efforts. If these key components of an organisational culture canbe identified then strategies to address them can be developed.An example of this approach can be presented based around a sense oftradition in an organisation. Imagine that a major element you encounter(perhaps through the stories people tell) is a strong tie to tradition and theproper way of doing things. From this you might infer that tradition andproper process is important to how the organisation operates and seesitself. Designing your change initiative, it might make sense to emphasisein word and deed how the change relates to relevant traditions andrespects those traditions. If the organisation has always been built aroundexcellent customer service, then aligning the proposed change with thisStudy Book: Management of Change62 Bradford MBAtradition and presenting it as such might be a relevant means ofintroducing a change in this particular cultural environment.Changing cultureRead: McCabe, D. (2010) Taking the long view: A cultural analysis ofmemory as resisting and facilitating organizational change (Blackboard >Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 6)By this point, hopefully you will have a sense of what we mean byorganisational culture along with an appreciation of its complexity. Intrying to understand what organisational culture is, we looked at Scheinand how he presents culture as something that emerges over time. Thisseems to raise questions about how culture might be changed.For some writers who present managers as all-powerful, culture is athing, or artefact, that can be removed and replaced with somethingdeemed more suitable. From this perspective, changing culture mightseem relatively straightforward.There is, however, a more complex view of organisational culture and theprospects for change. McCabes (2010) work recognises the role of powerand memory as features of culture that impact on organisational change.McCabe discusses how complex things such as power relations arerepresented or are present in the shared meanings of culture thatmeans that those things constituting culture are contested, and potentiallyrelatively fluid rather than fixed. This also means that it can be difficult todeliberately manipulate culture because you cant quite get a hold on it.McCabes view also allows for the presence of sub-cultures acrossorganisations so perhaps culture becomes less even, more contested,messier, than some would have us believe.Furthermore, McCabe highlights how changing cultures cannot be done bysimply wiping the slate clean of the existing one and installing a new one.The existing/former culture will continue to exert itself in some ways asmemories of previous practices and attitudes may persist. As an exampleof this, perhaps we could imagine the following scenario.A company wants to get a more interactive culture going among its staffto generate creativity. To achieve this objective, the organisation willneed to shift mindsets away from a culture that values hard work (longhours, proving yourself through marathon shifts, taking responsibility foryour own work and so on).It redesigns the office space to make it open-plan, perhaps puts insome new sofas, games consoles and other fun items. Managementmight change their espoused values to highlight the importance ofUnit 6: Culture and ChangeBradford MBA 63interaction/ collaboration and reflect this in the appraisal systems. Butthe way people go about doing their work might take much longer tochange as their assumptions about what constitutes proper work (e.g.head down at your desk, working in isolation for long periods of time,not disturbing people on the next desk or taking time out for coffee towork through a problem) may still be evident.McCabes view suggests that changing culture is, at best, tricky. It doesnot mean that culture cannot be changed through managementintervention but it does raise questions about what managementinterventions can achieve. If managers hope that they can change culturestowards a specific outcome then they may find themselves disappointed.Read: Harris, L.C. and Ogbonna, E. (1998) Employee responses toculture change efforts (Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials >Unit 6)Harris and Ogbonna (1998) have written about managers abilities tointroduce cultural change. They identify that not only is it a complexchallenge to take on but it also poses difficulties when trying to assesswhether it has been successful. Harris and Ogbonna recognise thatmanagers might not be able to distinguish instrumental value compliance(adopting the newly desired behaviours to achieve personal ends) frommore genuine reorientations to the new culture.SummaryIn this unit, we have looked at the idea of culture in organisations andused this to explore the relationship between culture and change. Wehave considered why understanding culture can be important irrespectiveof whether or not the change to be made is a cultural one. We haveemphasised how the uneven, gradual development of culture makes itcomplex to understand and how culture poses particular challenges tothose who wish to change it. We have also paused to consider what itmeans to change an organisations culture, specifically whethermanagement intervention can ever move a culture to a particular position.Activity 6.4 multiple-choice questionsThe multiple-choice questions will enable you to test your knowledge andunderstanding of the key concepts covered so far. (Blackboard > ModuleSite > Formative Exercises > Multiple-Choice Questions > Unit 6.)Study Book: Management of Change64 Bradford MBAActivity 6.5 live online tutorialRead: Culture, Cadbury and Kraft case study (Blackboard > Module Site> Module Materials > Unit 6)Note down your answers to these questions: click here (or go toBlackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 6 > Cadbury CaseStudy > Questions).Your module tutor will post details of when this tutorial will take place.Live online tutorial: To access the tutorial, please go to Blackboard >Module Site > Collaborate. For support and information about Collaborate,please go to the Blackboard Collaborate: Original Experience help site at:https://en-us.help.blackboard.com/Collaborate/v12.ReferencesHarris, L.C. and Ogbonna, E. (1998) Employee responses to culturechange efforts. Human Resource Management Journal 8(2), 7892.McCabe, D. (2010) Taking the long view: a cultural analysis of memory asresisting and facilitating organizational change. Journal of OrganizationalChange Management 23(3), 230250.Pearce, C. and Osmond, P. (1996) Metaphors for change: The ALPsmodel of change management. Organizational Dynamics 24(3), 2335.Pettigrew, A. (1979) On studying organizational cultures. AdministrativeScience Quarterly 24, 570581.Schein, E.H. (1984) Coming to a new awareness of organizational culture.Sloan Management Review 2(Winter), 316.Schein, E.H. (1996) Culture: the missing concept in organization studies.Administrative Science Quarterly 41(2), 229240.Bradford MBA 65Unit 7:Evaluating ChangeEffectivenessKey reading:1. Palmer et al. (2017) Chapters 11 and 12Other:1. Unit 7 audio and slides (Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials >Unit 7 > Audio and Slides) Activities 7.1, 7.2 and 7.42. Unit multiple-choice questions (Blackboard > Module Site > FormativeExercises > Multiple-Choice Questions > Unit 7) Activity 7.53. Unit 7 discussion forum activity (Blackboard > Module Site > DiscussionForums > Unit 7) Activity 7.6IntroductionRead: Palmer et al. (2017), Chapters 11 and 12In this unit, we consider the challenges of evaluating change effectivenessand look at approaches to this task. We will start by thinking about thesuccess rate of organisational change initiatives and consider the reasonswhy organisational change initiatives often seem to fail.ObjectivesOn successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: understand the purposes of evaluating change identify the main approaches to evaluating change recognise the political dimension of evaluating change learn how to avoid common pitfalls of evaluating change.Study Book: Management of Change66 Bradford MBAActivity 7.1 audio and slidesListen to: the audio for this unit and view the accompanying slides(Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 7 > Audio andSlides).Do most change efforts fail?The concept of effectiveness is based on the idea of assessing whether aparticular set of goals (e.g. change-related goals) are achieved andevaluating the success (or otherwise) of our efforts. If we cannot seepositive effects flowing from our efforts then we have to consider why ourwork has not produced the desired results. Reading much of thepractitioner-focused literature (see, for example, Kotter 1996 or Spectorand Beer 1994) you will be told that most change initiatives end in failure.You might see figures cited as high as 70% or more, but dig a little deeperin search of evidence for these claims and you might be disappointed.There seems to be little or no evidence to support the claims of high ratesof failure in change initiatives.Perhaps a more accurate comment on the success and failure of changeinitiatives in general might be something along the lines of: We dont reallyknow. It depends on who you ask. To this we might also add qualifiersconcerning when people were asked or precisely how they were asked.The challenge of evaluating the success or failure of change is that itmight depend as much on the subjective assessment of those involved oraffected as any apparently objective measures. It is understandable thatthose who feel they have been victims, or left out, of the change mightview it negatively and portray it as failing to achieve its objectives.Similarly, those members of the organisation with hidden or implicit hopesfor what an initiative might achieve that are frustrated, might evaluate theproject negatively. Much depends on perspective.Continuing this idea of perspective, what about the timing of evaluation?How often have you been involved in a complex project that seemed toend in failure only for it to appear relatively successful several monthsafter its completion? Perhaps the initial timeframe for evaluating successwas too short for the change to become truly embedded in theorganisation.All this means that we should treat measures, even objective ones, withsome degree of caution and understand that they might be representing aparticular view of events and outcomes for our change initiatives.Unit 7: Evaluating Change EffectivenessBradford MBA 67Activity 7.2 stop and thinkListen to: the audio for this unit and view the accompanying slides(Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 7 > Audio andSlides).Study slides 7, 8 and 9 from the presentation. Consider a change projectyou are currently involved in (or have been involved in). What measuresare you using and what types of measures (as highlighted in slides 7, 8and 9) are being used?Activity 7.2 stop and think answer:Evaluation politicsAs we considered in the lecture and have started to hint at in the sectionabove, evaluation can be an intensely political process. In anorganisational context, politics is about recognising that peoples actions(and views) are driven by certain interests. Sometimes these interests arethe same as the organisations or wider teams, while at other times theseinterests conflict with those of others around them.Even when evaluation processes and criteria are presented as objective, itis always worth asking yourself about the interests and perspectives theymight reflect (and exclude).Activity 7.3 stop and thinkReflect on a change project youve been involved in, focusing on the wayprogress was evaluated.Question 1: Whose interests were represented in the evaluation process?Question 2: Were anyones interests not represented?Study Book: Management of Change68 Bradford MBAActivity 7.3 stop and think answers:That evaluations of effectiveness reflect and ignore various perspectives isnot necessarily a good or a bad thing. If the organisational leadership ischarged with running the business and directing changes to take thebusiness forward then its interests might be given priority legitimately.However, evaluating change effectiveness is complex and potentiallyfraught with difficulties. Decisions over what to evaluate, how, when andso on, necessarily reflect certain interests and it is important that weappreciate which interests are being represented.Considering such evaluation challenges, there seems to be a good casefor developing evaluation schemes for particular organisations andparticular changes. In this way, we can be quite sure of what ourevaluation outputs tell us and we can ensure that the outputs gathered arerelevant for what it is we want to know.Activity 7.4 stop and thinkListen to: the audio for this unit and view the accompanying slides(Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 7 > Audio andSlides).Study slides 11, 14 and 15 from the presentation. Consider a changeproject you are currently involved in (or will soon be involved in) andUnit 7: Evaluating Change EffectivenessBradford MBA 69design an improved set of measures through which the effectiveness ofthe change can be evaluated. Be careful to avoid the pitfalls of evaluation.Activity 7.4 stop and think answer:SummaryIn this unit, we have thought about the evaluation of change effectiveness.While evaluating whether our change efforts have been successful isimportant in many ways, it can be far from straightforward. The main thrustof this unit has been to advise caution where evaluations are concerned.We must always ask ourselves precisely what any measurements oroutputs are telling us and recognise the various limitations to which theyare subject.In light of these issues and problems, this unit has avoided prescribing anapproach to evaluation but has instead sought to provide guidance on howyour own means of evaluating change effectiveness can be developed.Activity 7.5 multiple-choice questionsThe multiple-choice questions will enable you to test your knowledge andunderstanding of the key concepts covered so far. (Blackboard > ModuleSite > Formative Exercises > Multiple-Choice Questions > Unit 7)Activity 7.6 discussion forum activityDiscussion forum: Now that you have been introduced to some keytheories in relation to evaluating effectiveness, join the discussion withfellow students exploring how you might evaluate an implementation usingKotters model. (Blackboard > Module Site > Discussion Forums > Unit 7)Study Book: Management of Change70 Bradford MBARemember: you will need to add a screen shot of one of your posts to thisforum, as evidence of participation, into a document you submit viaTurnitin when you submit your assignment.ReferencesKotter, J.P. (1996) Leading Change, Cambridge. MA: Harvard BusinessSchool Press.Palmer, I., Dunford, R. and Buchanan, D.A. (2017) ManagingOrganizational Change: A Multiple Perspective Approach. 3rd InternationalEdition. Boston: McGraw-Hill.Spector, B. and Beer, M. (1994) Beyond TQM Programmes. Journal ofOrganizational Change 7(2), 6370.Bradford MBA 71Unit 8:Sustaining ChangeKey reading:1. Palmer at al (2017) Chapter 112. The Economist (2012) The last Kodak moment? 14 January(Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 8) Activity 8.23. Palmer et al. (2017) Challenger Disaster. 374380 Activity 8.3Other:1. Unit 8 audio and slides (Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials >Unit 8 > Audio and Slides) Activity 8.12. Unit 8 multiple-choice questions (Blackboard > Module Site > FormativeExercises > Multiple-Choice Questions > Unit 8) Activity 8.4IntroductionRead: Palmer et al. (2017) Chapter 11In this unit, we will consider the idea of sustaining change. It is a topic thatis perhaps more complex than it appears so we will first think about thenotion of sustainability in relation to change. We will consider howsustainability means different things in different contexts. Having done thiswe will consider the elements that need to be monitored when designingand implementing change and that help to ensure that the changesintroduced are sustainable.ObjectivesOn successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: appreciate the complexity of sustainability in relation to change identify how change may be vital to sustain an organisation consider how managers approaches to organisational change caninfluence the sustainability of that change.Study Book: Management of Change72 Bradford MBAActivity 8.1 audio and slidesListen to: the audio for this unit and view the accompanying slides(Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 8 > Audio andSlides).The meaning of sustainabilityWhat do we mean by sustainability when we are discussing organisationalchange? It may seem a strange question to ask because the answer is soobvious, namely, sustaining the changes, which have been implemented.However, it is not that straightforward.If we simply want to sustain working practices, then to what extent is thatcompatible with organisational change? Perhaps we want to sustainorganisational performance, which implies an ability to change. Further tothis there is a need to question how long is sustainable? If something iscalled sustainable does this mean it will remain stable for a few weeks,months, years even?From this it should be quite clear that the idea of sustainability in relationto organisational change is highly context-dependent. In some instances,sustainability relates to relatively minor changes being made, while inother circumstances, much more significant reinventions are required so itis the organisations ability to change which must be sustained rather thanparticular processes and practices.Activity 8.2 read and reflectRead: The Economist (2012) The last Kodak moment? 14 January(Blackboard > Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 8) Activity 8.2Once you have read the article answer these questions.Question 1: Consider the fortunes of Kodak and Fujifilm. How has theirrespective capacity to change influenced the sustainability of eachbusiness?Question 2: In what ways did forces to sustain existing practices in eachfirm threaten to put a brake on necessary change in each firm? In eachcase what was the effect of such pressures?Question 3: The article cites Clay Christensen describing the fate ofKodak as like seeing a tsunami coming and theres nothing you can doabout it. Given the information provided in the article, do you agree?Unit 8: Sustaining ChangeBradford MBA 73Activity 8.2 read and learn answers:Question 1:Question 2:Question 3:Issues to monitorIf we consider the relationship between sustainability and organisationalchange to be context-dependent, it seems inconsistent to then provide adefinitive list of actions to ensure sustainability. Nevertheless, someguidance on how robust changes might be implemented could help inmaking them more enduring. With this in mind, we can detail some issuesto monitor that could help managers implement changes that are adoptedsuccessfully.PeopleElias (2009) indicates that those people who are keen to learn and areinternally driven tend to be good during times of change because theywant to learn the skills of change or new ways of working. Similarly, theinnovation literature suggests that when recruiting staff there is a need toconsider whether potential employees have a need/desire to developthemselves. (Unfortunately, this may not always be evident when weemploy new staff, something which in turn can lead to the need fororganisational change.)Study Book: Management of Change74 Bradford MBAAttitudesLines (2005) indicates that, once fixed, attitudes to change within anorganisation can be hard to shift, so it is worth trying to get peoplepositively engaged regarding the change from the outset.Relevant communicationKeep your communication relevant to the particular audience; personallyrelevant information is better retained than general stuff, so use thisknowledge and keep the message as relevant as possible.JusticeIf people can influence the decision-making rules, have a chance to puttheir case across, and are able to appeal against the decision(s) beingmade, then they will perceive that justice is being sought. However, ifmanagers are not in a position to grant appeals or give staff genuineinvolvement in shaping the decision-making rules, it may be better for allconcerned not to offer false hope.Social groupsChange has a major social component as the vast majority of us areinfluenced by our peers and working groups. These groups can providethose involved with change with the values and criteria against which theywill assess the changes being made and whether they like or dislike thechanges.PreviewsTelling staff about the anticipated benefits and down sides of a changeprocess can help them to prepare for whats ahead. Realistic and honestinformation helps temper any anticipated gains they had in mind andforewarns them that it will not all be plain sailing (and thereby preparethem for troubles). Having said this, it can be hard to strike a balance you cant over-promise because if things go wrong (or dont go to plan)you will disappoint people (and give a chance for the dissenters to shoutliar), but if you are overly negative you might send worrying signals toyour staff, some of whom may subsequently seek work elsewhere.TimeNot everyone will experience every change in the same way. The timetaken to adapt to any new change(s) may vary from one person to thenext. This element of variability is something to bear in mind whenplanning any changes and the time you believe the change process willrequire.Unit 8: Sustaining ChangeBradford MBA 75EquifinalityEquifinality involves asking yourself whether you could achieve the desiredgoal in a way that inflicts less pain on people than the current plannedoption. If there is a less painful alternative take it.AdjustmentsChanges often dont work out as managers thought they would. As withanything, you learn as you progress. The plus side of this is that you maythen incorporate that learning into the changes you are making. Inaddition, the changes you make will alter the environment you areoperating in so be ready to adjust plans and methods as the changedevelops. You might consider the words of Heraclitus: No man ever stepsin the same river twice, for its not the same river and hes not the sameman.Lost causesThere is a need to regularly appraise the change(s) being introduced.Managers may need to set a predetermined point at which anunsuccessful change project needs to be ended, should that point arise. Inshort consider at what point does determination to succeed becomefoolhardy or folly?SummaryIn this unit, we have thought about the relationship between sustainabilityand change. We have identified how our understanding of sustainability ishighly context-dependent and we have initiated some reflections on whatthis means in different situations. With this emphasis on context, it wouldbe inconsistent to offer a firm list of actions to make changes sustainableso instead we have reviewed a series of issues to consider in designingand implementing robust organisational changes. In this way, we mighthope that our changes are sound and avoid potentially fatal flaws thatundermine their ability to remain in place for as long as they are required.Activity 8.3 review questionsRead: Palmer et al. (2017) Challenger Disaster, 374380Having read the case study, answer the following questions, reproducedfrom page 374.Question 1: What aspects of NASA practice revealed in the aftermath ofthe Columbia disaster suggest that the changes sought in the aftermath ofthe Challenger disaster were not sustained?Study Book: Management of Change76 Bradford MBAQuestion 2: Chapter 11 in Palmer et al. discusses actions that can betaken to sustain change. Which of the following do you see as mostapplicable to addressing the situation described in this case? Redesign roles Redesign reward system Link recruitment and selection decisions to change objectives Act consistently with advocated actions Encourage voluntary acts of initiative Measure progress Celebrate en route Fine tuneQuestion 3: Chapter 11 provides some words of caution in terms of whatto be alert to with respect to sustaining change. Which of the following doyou see as most applicable to addressing the situation described in thiscase? Expect some unanticipated outcomes Be alert to measurement limitations Dont declare victory too soon Beware escalation of commitment Recognise productive failuresActivity 8.3 review answers:Question 1:Question 2:Unit 8: Sustaining ChangeBradford MBA 77Question 3:Activity 8.4 multiple-choice questionsThe multiple-choice questions for this unit will enable you to test yourknowledge and understanding of the key concepts covered. (Blackboard >Module Site > Formative Exercises > Multiple-Choice Questions > Unit 8)ReferencesThe Economist (2012) The last Kodak moment? The Economist,14 January. (Author anonymous).http://www.economist.com/node/21542796 Accessed 5 March 2017.Elias, S.M. (2009) Employee commitment in times of change: assessingthe importance of attitudes toward organizational change. Journal ofManagement 35(1), 3755.Lines, R. (2005) The structure and function of attitudes towardorganizational change. Human Resource Development Review 4(1),832.Palmer, I., Dunford, R. and Buchanan, D.A. (2017) ManagingOrganizational Change: A Multiple Perspective Approach. 3rd InternationalEdition. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Bradford MBA 79Unit 9:RevisionKey audio and video:1. Management of Change Module Conclusion (Blackboard > ModuleSite > Module Materials > Unit 9) Activity 9.1Other:1. Unit 9 live online tutorial (Blackboard > Module Site > Collaborate) Activity 9.22. Unit 9 marked formative assessment (Blackboard > Module Site >Formative Exercises > Marked Formative Assessment > Unit 9) Activity 9.3Activity 9.1 watch and reflectWatch: Management of Change Module Conclusion (Blackboard >Module Site > Module Materials > Unit 9)This video gives an overview of the key issues and ideas raised anddiscussed in this module.At the most basic level, exams or other modes of assessment are testingthe following: your understanding of the module material your ability to apply the module material in addressing a specific task your wider reading and deeper understanding of the module and relatedissues.The Management of Change assignment is no different. When tackling theassignment consider the following points. You need to draw on topics covered in the module along with relevantmodels or approaches when writing your assignment. If you do not drawon the module materials, then you are not demonstrating yourunderstanding of the module materials. Just presenting a list of models is insufficient at this level, so you needto demonstrate a sound understanding of the models by applying themodels (and indeed other elements from the module materials) to aStudy Book: Management of Change80 Bradford MBAparticular instance or context in this instance, the organisationalchange you are analysing. While demonstrating your understanding of course materials is vital,you also need to show that you can go beyond the tutors notes andread around the topics you are exploring.The taskIn the assignment, you are being asked to do two things. These two tasksare closely related but distinct components of a single assignment.The first part should take the form of a short descriptive case study; theaim of this should be to outline the nature, scope and extent of the changeconsidered along with key stakeholders, milestones and issues within this,ending with four questions, related to the case and to management ofchange.The second part of your submission should include a brief note outliningthe main learning points contained in your case. In this section, you willalso need to provide brief answers to the questions you identified at theend of your case study. The word limit is quite stringent so this section canbe answer plans or model answers which enable you to demonstrateyour knowledge and its application to the case without needing to write acomplete essay for each question. It would be acceptable therefore to usephrases such as the answer would highlight..by drawing on the conceptof .. developed by in .. It would then go on to link this with thenotion of.perhaps comparing and contrasting by using toillustrate.PlanningThe key to a good assignment is planning. If you plan your assignmentappropriately, the execution becomes relatively straightforward. There arethree main planning phases for this assignment and we will take each onein turn.Ideas What experiences of change do I have that would make an interestingcase? What aspects of the module did I find useful or interesting? Does my case study idea enable me to incorporate the aspects of themodule I found interesting?Taking each question separately, first think about your own experiences oforganisational change. Perhaps you have been involved in a changeUnit 9: RevisionBradford MBA 81earlier in your career? Maybe youre currently involved in an organisationalchange? At this initial stage, it is worth noting down all your ideas as thiswill give you a wide choice, something you can narrow down when youcome to select your final case. The changes you think of dont need to bethe biggest or most dramatic you have been involved in in fact it mightbe better to tackle a smaller change you have been/are intimately involvedwith rather than a major change where you were less involved. Make sureyou choose a change scenario that you would actually like to study further.The next step is to reflect on the module. Are there any topics or ideas thatyou found interesting or that youd like to explore further? Note thesedown. You dont need to be exhaustive here just write down the thingsthat interest you.Finally, in this ideas stage, you need to see whether your chosen caseprovides sufficient opportunity to apply your topics of interest. For thistask, jot down the main events of the change event and then see whetheryou can map the theories/ concepts of interest onto those main events. Ifyou cannot do this, then perhaps you need to select an alternative changeevent, or select some different theories with which to analyse the case.By the end of this ideas phase you should have a case chosen and ageneral sense of which concepts or theories you will apply to it.Building a structureAsk yourself these questions. With the case idea in mind and the concepts Id like to apply identified,how might they fit together? What information must I include in the case study if I am to have ameaningful discussion/analysis in the second part of the assignment? In light of these considerations, what do both parts of the assignmentlook like? What wider reading can I demonstrate?In this part of the planning phase, it is important to start developing yourassignment plan. You can start this by aligning the case idea and theconcepts youd like to apply and then ask yourself what information youwill need to include in the case to facilitate your analysis in the teachingnote.By way of brief example, if you wanted to assess the communicationstrategy used by managers during a time of change you would need toensure that relevant communication information is presented in your case.If you wanted to use Clampitt and colleagues typology of effectivecommunication you would need to decide which category theStudy Book: Management of Change82 Bradford MBAcommunication used fell into and describe the communication activity inthese terms so that your subsequent analysis is rooted in the case study.As you work through this phase you are likely to find that you are having tofocus your case around your core topics and perhaps slim downbackground information and non-core topics.At the end of this phase, you should have a good idea of what topics youwant to include and a good understanding of what information you willneed to include in your case study to facilitate the analysis in yourteaching note. Finally, when you have got a structure outlined you shouldcheck that you have included some wider reading in a relevant way.Planning the execution Write the case study and double check that it contains sufficientinformation/detail to enable you to analyse it. In the second part of the assignment, you dont have to be exhaustive inyour application of a given framework but avoid simply listing youneed to show the results of analysis. Check that tables and diagrams are used effectively. Include your references of (wider) reading; include all the sources youhave cited.When you are planning to write your assignment, give carefulconsideration to allocating word count. Where possible, use tables ordiagrams to present content as appropriate (as long as this is not abused).Think about where you want to place the emphasis in your assignmentand plan your word count accordingly for example, you are unlikely toscore many marks for a basic question utilising PESTLE but it does offer auseful starting point for your analysis. In this instance you might want topresent PESTLE as a diagram and give your analysis in focused bulletpoints or in a table. This saves you word count that you could then applyto explore richer topics in greater detail and depth.SummaryIn this unit, we have taken a brief look at the assessment task and set outsome points to consider in building your assignment. It is important that inaddition to considering the guidance provided in this unit, you review theassignment brief set out earlier in the Study Book.Unit 9: RevisionBradford MBA 83Activity 9.2 live online tutorialThis tutorial will take the form of a tutor-led discussion on how to completeyour assignment. There will be an opportunity to raise particular questionswith the tutor and your group members as well as discuss the writingprocess. You will get most out of the session if you have considered theissues raised in this unit of the module.The precise structure of the tutorial will be determined through agreementwith the module tutor so that it is tailored towards your needs. (Yourmodule tutor will post details of when this tutorial will take place.)Live online tutorial: To access the tutorial, please go to Blackboard >Module Site > Collaborate. For support and information about Collaborate,please go to the Blackboard Collaborate: Original Experience help site at:https://en-us.help.blackboard.com/Collaborate/v12.Activity 9.3 marked formative assessmentYou should, by now, have drafted your case study for the assignment (orat least have begun to). You may even have submitted it for the Unit 5formative assessment and made revisions subsequently. Hopefully, at thesame time as developing the case study, you will have been thinkingabout the questions that you will pose at the end of Part 1 of theassignment and that you will provide model answers for in Part 2.For this formative assessment, please provide your four questions, alongwith (as bullet points for each question) the key theories, frameworks andconcepts you plan to use in answering them. Also, indicate which analysesyou intend to complete and present in your final assignment. Please sendthe latest version of your case study. The draft of your case study will notbe marked in this formative assessment exercise but it will give context toyour questions to ensure there is alignment between the two. Email yourwork to your module tutor for feedback.ReferencesClampitt, P.G., DeKoch, R.J. and Cashman, T. (2000) A strategy forcommunicating about uncertainty. Academy of Management Executive14(4), 4157. Bradford MBA 85Appendix A:Module DescriptorModule Code: HRM7012-AAcademic Year: 2016/17Credit rating: 10School: School of ManagementSubject Area: Human Resource ManagementFHEQ level: FHEQ level 7 (Masters)Module co-ordinator: Dr Susan RichardsonAdditional Tutors:Pre-requisites:Co-requisites:Contact hours Type HoursLectures 0Tutorials 0Directed Study 95.00 Module aims1. To provide a framework for a critical understanding of the issuesassociated with managing change in organisations.2. To provide opportunities for reflecting on real change in organisations.3. To consider how change can be delivered in an ethical and sustainablemanner.Study Book: Management of Change86 Bradford MBAOutline syllabusThe module is predicated on a systemic view of change and organisationsand seeks to offer students an integrative framework for understandingand managing change, including consideration of how to ensure change isunderstood, responded to, handled and managed in an organisation.1. Understanding change the nature and forms of changes, managerialresponses and approaches, a systems view of an organisation.2. The environment and context for change internal and externalinfluences, the scale and impact of change and responses at thecultural and structural levels in organisations.3. Preparing for change diagnostic models of change and organisations,creating awareness and getting people ready for change (unfreezing),developing a change enabled mind-set, setting strategy and plans.4. Implementing change models and approaches for undertaking change process view and n-step approaches.5. Enabling change issues of motivation for and resistance against,models of change agency, leadership and their implications.6. Communicating change effective models of change communication,barriers and enablers to effective ethical communication, sense makingand politics.7. Evaluating change effectiveness the need for vision, consideration ofsuccess and failure and, models for effective monitoring, evaluation andassessment of the impact from change.8. Sustaining change, implications of sustainability for change, timescales.Module learning outcomesOn successful completion of this module, students will be able to:1a. Demonstrate understanding of the change process, your own andothers response/reaction to it and how these might be modified.1b. Apply knowledge and understanding around organisational change inits various forms.1c. Identify causes/drivers of change and evaluate courses of action.1d. Explain how context influences the decisions taken in respect oforganisational change.Appendix A: Module descriptorBradford MBA 872a. Identify the environmental influences on change.2b. Appraise the organisational change critically including those changesundertaken in their own organisation.2c. See beyond simplistic, prescriptive, models of change and focus onthe underlying causes and context of change.2d. Develop approaches to change that address the problems identified inan ethical and sustainable manner.3a. Assess the implementation of change within organisations.3b. Think critically in relation to organisational change.3c. Act effectively in responding to organisational change and betterinfluence others experience of change.Learning, teaching and assessment strategyTo gain a firm understanding of the subject area and the key issues (asoutlined in the syllabus) students will be required to access and engagewith a variety of online resources (selected readings, video and audioresources) a designated set text and a module study book that sets outguided reading, self-assessment exercises, case studies and links toadditional resources. This relates to module outcomes: 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 2a,2b, 3a, 3b, 3c.In addition students attend a series of tutorial sessions. These sessionssupport the development of knowledge, discipline and personal skills andprovide students with formative feedback on the same. The sessions alsoallow students to gain an international perspective on the subject areathrough engaging with fellow MBA students in varying locations. Thisrelates to module learning outcomes, 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 2c, 3a, 3b.Students have the opportunity to complete a series of MCQ exercises foreach module unit studied. After completing the questions student receiveinstant feedback on their performance. In addition to this there is theoption of completing two formative tasks. These tasks involve answering aquestion(s) on a key issue/theory relating to the module. Written feedbackis provided by the module tutor. This relates to module learning outcomes:1a, 2a, 3a.The module assignment requires students to consider changemanagement theory and concepts (as well as how evident and executed)in the workplace. This assesses the following learning outcomes; 1a, 1b,1c,, 1d, 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 3a, 3b.Study Book: Management of Change88 Bradford MBAMode of assessment Type Method DescriptionSummative Coursework Individual assignment (2000 words) Legacy code: MAN4311MBradford MBA 89Appendix B:Model Answers toActivitiesIn this appendix, you will find answers to the activities set throughout theStudy Book. Where those activities were purely reflective or relatedspecifically to your organisation answers are not provided.There are no right or wrong answers for many of the stop and thinkactivities. The main purpose is to get you thinking about the context inwhich you are living and working. Whenever we think about organisationsand organisational change, it is important to recognise the widerenvironments in which they operate and the forces exerted upon them.Model answers are only provided here when more specificity can be given.Unit 3Activity 3.2The important idea in this question is to recognise that managers shouldalways fit their change approach to the organisation and the environment.This observation applies not only at the start of a change process but runsthroughout it. In change processes, it is to be hoped that organisationschange, which brings with it implications for what approaches to managingchange in that new context might be most appropriate.Take, for example, an organisation on the brink of collapse. In thissituation a very tough, management-led approach to cutting costs andgenerating cash might be the best option to save the business. Such anapproach, however, is likely to be unsustainable for the longer term if themanagement wants to build an organisation with prospects for the future.In this situation, the management would need to recognise that theapproach suitable for crisis management is not suitable for building anorganisation.Study Book: Management of Change90 Bradford MBAUnit 5Activity 5.4In the case of H&M the story mentioned reflects on the past and some ofthe key values of the organisation as demonstrated by the organisationsfounder. It shows that within H&M, status and titles have always had littleimpact, good service is key and failing is acceptable, but there is a needfor commitment to the organisation. So, the story shows us the beginningsof the organisation and how certain values have always been in place andare still seen as desirable to this day.Appendix B: Model Answers to ActivitiesBradford MBA 91Unit 8Activity 8.2Question 1:The comparative study of Kodak and Fujifilm help to highlight howsustaining an organisation over time can require change. Kodaks relativeinertia, its inability to change, has contributed to its downfall. In the articlethis is contrasted with the capacity of Fujifilm to implement changes.An interesting observation is that both organisations saw the need forchange coming and both organisations were aware of the need to adapttheir way of doing business. It appears to have been in the practicalaspects of implementing change that the organisations might bedifferentiated.Question 2:In Kodak, at least two major trends or characteristics are identified by thearticle: (1) the companys near-monopoly in its home market made itcomplacent; (2) a perfect product mindset which stalled innovations. Onreflection, we might wonder whether (2) belies a more fundamentalproblem that Kodak had really forgotten how to implement change. Thisexplanation would seem more consistent with point (1) as a monopoly mayhave little need to change (or at least not change rapidly). The perfectproduct mindset could be a relatively polite retrospective explanation forKodaks prevarication. However, regardless of what we identify asunderlying Kodaks relative inertia to change, the effects are that theorganisation has not been able to respond to shifts taking place in its coremarkets.In Fujifilm, the article tells us that Mr Komori faced some forms ofresistance within the business. In particular, the consumer film division isidentified as a source of resistance where the organisation wanted tosustain existing practices rather than recognise there was a crisis looming.In Fujifilm, it would appear that these pressures represented obstacles tothe organisations ability to adapt but did not prevent the necessarychange from being implemented.Question 3:There is no specific right or wrong answer to this question; however, youmight want to bear in mind the comparison between Kodak and Fujifilm. InStudy Book: Management of Change92 Bradford MBAthe article, we are told that both organisations had largely similar, negativevisions of the future. In Kodaks case, it would appear that the organisationrecognised the declining nature of its core business some 30 years ormore before the decline really hit home. In this time, Fujifilm was able toadapt. Can it really be said that Kodak could have done nothing about thecrisis it saw? There is a clear distinction between seeing a crisis and beingpowerless to respond compared to seeing a crisis coming and notresponding appropriately. To our mind, Kodak falls into the latter and notthe former category as Christensen implies.Activity 8.3Question 1:Among the things you might have identified in your answer to this questionare the following points: tendency to normalise safety failure concerns over-emphasis by managers on activity at NASA allowed underlyingsafety concerns to be downplayed or set aside emphasis placed on proving why a launch should not take place on thegrounds of safety rather than demonstrating that it was safe to launch assumptions were in favour of launching shuttles rather than safety first reliance on past success as a substitute for sound engineeringpracticesQuestion 2:We have underlined four elements that seem to be key in sustainingchange for the situation outlined in this case.Redesign roles It appeared in the case that those who had thetechnical knowledge required to make informed decisions about safetylacked the power within the organisation to take decisions. At the sametime, those who had the power in NASA were political animals who mighthave been driven by other pressures. It might be argued that roles couldbe redesigned to give greater influence to those with the know-howrequired to make technical evaluations of risks and safety.Link selection decisions to change objectives This course of actionseems closely related to the issue of role redesign. If the organisationneeds to place a greater emphasis on safety, then people with thenecessary skills and knowledge should be appointed. Furthermore, ifNASA required greater degrees of frank communication and collaborationAppendix B: Model Answers to ActivitiesBradford MBA 93then people displaying these skills and working in these ways should beappointed to key roles.Act consistently with advocated actions This would seem to gowithout saying if the advocated actions are to mean anything.Measure progress As we covered in Unit 7, the old adage, what getsmeasured gets done would appear to apply here. If people know thatactions will be measured, then those actions are likely to conform withwhat is required (bearing in mind the usual caveats around people simplygaming by being solely concerned with hitting the right numbers withoutengaging in desired underpinning behaviours).

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