Implementing ChangeMBA Management of Change2016-17 1 2017 MBA Management of Change Dr Sue Richardson Overview and objectives 2 2017 MBA Management of Change Dr Sue Richardson Approaches to implementation Change management Organization development Striking a balance Resistance to change What it is and how we can engage with it in ameaningful way Summary and conclusionsApproaches to implementation 3 2017 MBA Management of Change Dr Sue Richardson Determiningneed forchange1Preparingtentativeplans2Analysingprobablereactions3Making afinal decision4Establishinga timetable5Communicatingthe change6Implementingthe change7(Kirkpatrick 2001)Approaches to implementation 4 2017 MBA Management of Change Dr Sue Richardson These n-step approaches have variousstrengths but also contain certainweaknesses or limitations. They can: View change as relatively straight-forward Assume a journey metaphor The process comes first, then the problemCan a single model really be right forall types of change?Approaches to implementation 5 2017 MBA Management of Change Dr Sue Richardson Organization Development Focus on the whole organization Planned approach Organizations are political (i.e. nonrational) places embodying multipleperspectives Emphasis on changing behaviours andattitudes, not just specific practices Learning through involvement in changeprocesses is important Change takes timeApproaches to implementation 6 2017 MBA Management of Change Dr Sue Richardson Organization Development has been criticised for,among other things: Very broad range of techniques and ideas Causal relationships with change outcomes? Generalizability of approach? Too slow, cannot respond to crisesApproaches to implementation 7 2017 MBA Management of Change Dr Sue Richardson Striking a balance through multiple interventionstrategies (Huy, 2001): Commanding Engineering Teaching Socializing Interventions have different strengths and weaknesses,suit different contexts Can use in sequence or combineResistance to Change 8 2016 MBA Management of Change Dr Sue Richardson One of the nastiest, most debilitatingworkplace cancers is resistance to change(David Foote 2001)Exercise: Experiencing resistance 9 2017 MBA Management of Change Dr Sue Richardson Think about a recent occasion when you haveencountered resistance to an idea In brief what was the situation? What was the resistance? Why did it arise? How did you feel?Exercise: Recognising resistance 10 2017 MBA Management of Change Dr Sue Richardson How might you spot resistance in your /an organization? Try to think of the subtle ways peoplemight express resistance as well as themore overt displays of displeasureHow might resistance arise? 11 2017 MBA Management of Change Dr Sue Richardson Resistance to change might arise in a numberof ways but some interesting sources ofresistance are: Inability to cope with stresses and strains Sense of psychological contract in breach Fatigue Dislike of change and ambiguity Perceived harm to interests Uncertainty over the change direction Change is inappropriate (now) Bitter experience Ethical or moral concernsExploring resistance (based on Ford et al. 2008) 12 2017 MBA Management of Change Dr Sue Richardson Resistance is often perceived as negative and somethingothers do to us / our plans Ford and colleagues suggest that resistance should alsounderstood as: A way in which change agents make sense ofreactions to change A result of change agents actions and inaction Having a positive role in changeExploring resistance 13 2017 MBA Management of Change Dr Sue Richardson Sense-making Resistance as a handy catch-all to explaindifficulties in change (whilst also divertingblame for the problems) If change agents anticipate resistance, theymight actively look for resistance of behaviour(in ways that actually generate resistance)Exploring resistance 14 2017 MBA Management of Change Dr Sue Richardson A result of change agent actions and inaction Violations of formal and implicit agreements Failing to communicate effectively about thechange Being found to have misrepresented thechange Assuming that understanding leads to action Change agents themselves resisting feedbackand acting inflexiblyExploring resistance 15 2017 MBA Management of Change Dr Sue Richardson A positive role for resistance Keeps people talking about the change Winning hard-fought arguments may createrobust change supporters Resistance as a source of feedback on changeprocess and opportunity to improve it Reminds change agents to approach changethoughtfullySo what? 16 2017 MBA Management of Change Dr Sue Richardson Engages with issues of resistance rather thantreating resistance as inevitable Aids reflection on own actions in relation tochange-related challenges facing us Sensitises change agents to how their messagesand actions can have lasting impacts Highlights that resistance can strengthen changeprocessesSummary and conclusions 17 2017 MBA Management of Change Dr Sue Richardson Implementing change can be tackled in variousways so dont fall into the trap of just using one one size probably doesnt fit all Thinking about your approach to addressingorganizational problems also means engagingwith resistance, dismissing it as simplynegative is risky and may deprive you of benefitReferences 18 2016 MBA Management of Change Dr Sue Richardson Collins, D. (1998) Organisational Change Sociological Perspectives.London: Routledge. Ford, J.D., Ford, L.W., and DAmelio, A. (2008) Resistance tochange: the rest of the story Academy of Management Review,33(2), 362-377. Foote, D. (2001) The futility of resistance (to change).ComputerWorld. Jan 15 http://www.computerworld.com/article/2589854/itmanagement/the-futilityof-resistanceto-change-.html [accessed14 April 2017] Huy, Q.N. (2001) Time, temporal capability, and planned change.Academy of Management Review 26(4), 601-623. Kirkpatrick, D.L. (2001) Managing change effectively: approaches,methods, and case examples. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. Piderit, S.K. Rethinking resistance and recognizing ambivalence: amultidimensional view of attitudes toward an organizationalchange. Academy of Management Review 25, (4), 783-794
What it is and how we can
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