You have been commissioned to

CAB403 Systems Programming Semester 2, 2018 1 | P a g e Assignment: Process Management and Distributed Computing Due Date: 26th October 2018 Weighting: 40% Group or Individual: Individual/Group of Two 1 Assignment Description Task 1: Client-Server Computing You only need to attempt this task if you are aiming to achieve a mark up to 64% for this assignment. You have been commissioned to develop a client/server system for an online games provider to expand their current offerings to registered clients. The company wishes to offer to their current clients the game of Minesweeper. Minesweeper is a single-player game, with the objective of placing flags on a grid of either empty tiles, or tiles containing mines. The player does not know the location of these mines at the beginning of a round, yet must place the flags in the correct locations, which is the main challenge of the game. A tile can be revealed to discover how many mines are adjacent to it, as a hint to where the mines lie. However, if a tile containing a mine is revealed, the game is over. The following outlines the basic premise of the game of Minesweeper: 1. 10 mines are randomly placed on a 99 grid, with the locations unknown to the player. 2. From the players perspective, all the tiles start in the unknown state. 3. The player can either select a tile to reveal what is underneath or place a flag on the tile. 4. When a player reveals a tile, which does not contain a mine, if the tile is adjacent to a mine (meaning a mine is in one of the surrounding 8 tiles), the tile is filled in with the number of adjacent mines. Otherwise, the tile is replaced with a zero, and the process repeats recursively for each of its neighbours, stopping once a tile with a nonzero number of adjacent mines is encountered. 5. If a player reveals a tile which contains a mine, the game is over, and the player loses. 6. Once a player has placed flags on all the tiles which contain mines, the player wins. This is different to the classic Minesweeper game, where all non-mine tiles must be revealed, to simplify game logic. CAB403 Systems Programming Semester 2, 2018 2 | P a g e This game will be simulated using a distributed system architecture. The server determines the placement of the mines and maintains the state of the game grid. The client should therefore receive input from the player, and relay this to the server. The server can then simulate the players move and transmit the new state of the grid to the client. Only the visible tiles should be sent to the client. The client and server will be implemented in the C programming language using BSD sockets on the Linux operating system. This is the same environment used during the weekly practicals. The programs (clients and server) are to run in a terminal reading input from the keyboard and writing output to the screen. You will have acquired all the necessary knowledge and skills to complete the assignment by attending all the lectures and practicals, and completing the associated reading from the text book. Server The server will take only one command line parameter that indicates which port the server is to listen on. If no port number is supplied the default port of 12345 is to be used by the server. The following command will run the server program on port 12345. ./server 12345 The server is responsible for ensuring only registered clients of the system can play Minesweeper. A file named Authentication.txt contains the names and the passwords of all registered clients. This file should be located in the same directory as the server binary file. This file is not to be changed. The company has requested that the state of the game be deterministic, with a fixed random seed of 42. This can be done using the srand() function at the beginning of the program, as follows: Figure 1: Seeding the random number generator What the use of a fixed random seed means is that the first game played on the server after it has started will have the same mines in the same locations each time. The second game will have a different set of mines, but they will be the same as the second game played on a different invocation of the server, and so forth. The server should not be able to take any input from the terminal once it is running. The only way that the server is to exit is upon receiving a SIGINT from the operating system (an interrupt signal). SIGINT is a type of signal found on POSIX systems and in the Linux environment this means ctrl+c has been pressed at the server terminal. You need to implement a signal handler CAB403 Systems Programming Semester 2, 2018 3 | P a g e and ensure the server exits cleanly. This means the server needs to deal elegantly with any threads that have been created as well as any open sockets, dynamically allocated memory and/or open files. When the server receives a SIGINT, it is to immediately commence the shutdown procedure even if there are currently connected clients. In the 9th edition of the textbook, Section 4.6.2 Signal Handling on page 183 has an introduction to signal handlers and Section 18.9.1 Synchronisation and Signals on page 818 has a detailed description of signals on Linux. Client The client will take two (2) command line parameters: hostname and port number. The following command will run the client program connecting to the server on port 12345. ./client server_IP_address 12345 The game of Minesweeper is only available to registered clients of the companys online gaming system. Once the client program starts the client must authenticate by entering a registered name and password which appear in the Authentication.txt file located on the server. After the server validates the clients credentials the client program can proceed to the main menu. If the client does not authenticate correctly the socket is to be immediately closed. (see Figure 2 & Figure 3) Figure 2: Client logon screen Figure 3: Unsuccessful client logon The client program should be a menu driven application. The client program will have three options: Play Minesweeper, Show Leaderboard, and Exit. (Figure 4) CAB403 Systems Programming Semester 2, 2018 4 | P a g e Figure 4: Client main menu If the client elects to play a game of Minesweeper, the server is to allocate storage for the state of the clients game, including the grid of 99 tiles. All tiles should start in the unrevealed state. One possible method for storing the game state could be with a C struct, covered earlier in the semester. Figure 5: Example struct for tiles After allocating and initializing the storage for the game state, the server should randomly place 10 mines on the playfield. To ensure that the game operates deterministically, the following algorithm should be used to place the mines: Figure 6: Algorithm for placing mines The do..while loop is necessary, as it is possible for the random number generator to choose coordinates where a mine has already been laid. CAB403 Systems Programming Semester 2, 2018 5 | P a g e At this point, the server should wait for the client to send it a set of coordinates to reveal a tile or place a flag. It is not a requirement to draw a complex graphical representation of the Minesweeper playfield. Instead, a simple textual representation should be used by the client program to represent: The number of remaining mines in the playfield. The state of each tile on the grid. Figure 7 contains a mockup of what your interface should resemble after a new game has been started. Figure 7: Empty Minesweeper grid If the player chooses one of the first two options (revealing a tile, or placing a flag), the client should prompt for two coordinates, representing the row, then the column. The client should then send these coordinates to the server, which will update the internal state accordingly, and send the new game state to the client. If the third option is chosen, the client should exit from the game loop, and return to the main menu. If the client requests that a tile be revealed, the server should first check to see if that tile has already been revealed. If that is the case, an error should be sent to the client. If the tile has not been revealed, one of three paths should be taken: If the tile does not contain a mine, and has a non-zero number of adjacent tiles, the tile should be set to revealed, and the number of adjacent mines should be sent to the client. CAB403 Systems Programming Semester 2, 2018 6 | P a g e Figure 8: Revealing tile with one adjacent mine If the tile contains zero adjacent mines, this process should be repeated for all surrounding tiles, stopping when a tile with a non-zero number of adjacent tiles is found. This can be achieved using recursion and checking each of the 8 neighbouring tiles. All these revealed tiles should be sent to the client. Figure 9: Revealing tile with zero adjacent mines If the tile contains a mine, the game is over. The server should send the locations of all the remaining mines to the client, and the client should display these to the player. CAB403 Systems Programming Semester 2, 2018 7 | P a g e Figure 10: Player reveals a tile with a mine If the player opts to place a flag, the client should again prompt for a pair of coordinates and send this to the server. If a mine exists at that location, the server should decrement the number of remaining mines, and check for the win condition (explained below). If no mine exists at the location, the client should be informed, and display an appropriate message. This is another difference from the classic Minesweeper game. Figure 11: Placing a flag on a mine After a flag has been successfully played, the win condition should be checked. This condition is true when there are zero remaining mines. If true, the game should finish, report the number of seconds it took to win the game, and the client should return to the main menu. CAB403 Systems Programming Semester 2, 2018 8 | P a g e Figure 12: Flags placed on all mines The amount of time the game has been played for needs to be tracked by the server, to prevent players from cheating. Make use of time functions in the C standard library (such as time()) to store when a player begins their game and when they finish. A leaderboard needs to be maintained for all games of Minesweeper played. A registered user can request an up-to-date report of the fastest games of Minesweeper that have been played. The output for the leaderboard can be seen in Figure 13, and should be displayed in descending order of the number of seconds each successful game took to complete. This is to ensure the best-played games (that is, those games that were played in the least time) appear at the bottom and the player does not need to scroll up to see these. If two or more games have the same number of seconds then the game played by the player with the highest number of games won should be displayed last. If two or more games were won in the same number of seconds by players with the same number of games won then display those games by the names of their players in alphabetical order. If no games have been won, an empty leaderboard should be displayed for as shown in Figure 14. The lifetime of the leaderboard is only to be maintained for the duration of the server runtime. This information does not need to be persistent between server instances (so if the server is shut down and restarted, the leaderboard will once more be blank until some games have been won.) CAB403 Systems Programming Semester 2, 2018 9 | P a g e Figure 13: Example output of the leaderboard Figure 14: No statistics for any players no game has been played since server started. IMPORTANT NOTE: The company has specifically requested that location of the mines must never be sent to the client, to prevent unscrupulous users of the Minesweeper game system from cheating. Therefore, the state of all tiles should remain unknown until either a flag is placed on the mine tile, or the tile is revealed. After each move is played, the coordinates must be sent to the server for processing. This means most of the game logic must be CAB403 Systems Programming Semester 2, 2018 10 | P a g e implemented on the server side. How this is accomplished is an implementation decision for you, as the programmer, to decide. The client/server system is all console based. No bonuses will be given for complex user interfaces. The implementation for Task 1 does not need to handle concurrent connections and therefore does not need to be multithreaded. CAB403 Systems Programming Semester 2, 2018 11 | P a g e Task 2: Multithreaded Programming & Process Synchronisation You only need to attempt this task if you are aiming to achieve a mark up to 84% for this assignment. The server you have implemented in Task 1 can only handle a single request at a time. You are required to extend the server to accept multiple concurrent connections. As each new connection is made, a new thread is created to handle the client request. The server will allow multiple clients to use the system at the same time. You will need to implement a system whereby the server can accept multiple concurrent connections. When a client exits the thread allocated to the client is destroyed. One potential problem that you must handle in this multithreaded programming task is a socalled Critical-Section Problem because the leaderboard is a database that may be shared among multiple concurrent connections, each of which may read or update the database. You must make sure that there will no connection that is updating the leaderboard while other connections are reading it. However, it is fine to allow multiple connections to read the leaderboard concurrently. This critical-section problem is similar to the Readers-Writers Problem discussed in Lecture 5. Thus, you may reuse the solution to the Readers-Writers Problem. In this critical-section problem, each client (connection) may play the role of Reader or Writer at a time. While the client (connection) plays the Minesweeper game, its role is Writer as at the end of the game, it will update the leaderboard; while the client (connection) displays the leaderboard, its role is Reader as it only read data from the leaderboard, but never update the leaderboard. A second issue to note is the random number generator. As Cs rand() function is not threadsafe, accesses to this function must be synchronised (e.g. with a mutex). Task 3: Thread Pool You only need to attempt this task if you are aiming to achieve a mark up to 100% for this assignment. The server will allow up to 10 clients to use the system at the same time. After the maximum of 10 clients have connected, if a new client tries to connect either the new client will have to wait for another user to exit or the connection may be dropped. You will need to implement a thread pool where each incoming connection is handled in a separate thread. A thread pool reduces the cost of constantly creating and destroying threads to handle requests. Instead, threads are reused to handle connections. It also limits the number of incoming connections to guarantee the performance of the server. You can implement your own Thread Pool reusing the producer consumer pattern from the weekly practicals, where the main thread accepts incoming sockets and places them in a queue (the producer) and 10 threads remove sockets from the queue and process the connection (the CAB403 Systems Programming Semester 2, 2018 12 | P a g e consumer). You may also use or adapt the complete Thread Pool implementation provided in the weekly practicals. 2 Submission Your assignment solution will be submitted electronically via Blackboard before 11:59pm on 26th October 2018. If you work in a group, you only need to submit one copy of your group assignment. Your submission should be a zip file and the file name should contain the student number(s) and include the following items: All source code of your solution. The make file that you used for generating the executable files, if any. A report in Word Document Format or PDF which includes: a) A statement of completeness indicating the tasks you attempted, any deviations from the assignment specification, and problems and deficiencies in your solution. b) Information about your team, including student names and student numbers, if applicable c) Statement of each students contributions to the assignment. If all members of the group contributed equally, then it is sufficient to state this explicitly. d) Description of the data structure(s) used for representing the playfield. e) Description of the data structure that is used for the leaderboard in your implementation. f) Description of how the critical-section problem is handled in Task 2, if applicable. g) Description of how the thread pool is created and managed in Task 3, if applicable. h) Instructions on how to compile and run your program. Note: If the program does not compile on the command line in the Linux environment used during each weekly practical, your submission will be heavily penalised. Implementations written in Visual Studio or other IDEs that do not compile on the Linux command line will receive a mark of zero (0).

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